Cymraeg

Hwb

What Matters in Health and Well-being

Organise By

  • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

    If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

    Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

    This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can move in different ways, and can choose to take part in active play on my own and alongside others.

      I can control gross and fine movements through active play and everyday tasks in different environments.

      I can respond to instructions about movement and can move safely in a variety of spaces.

      I can explore a variety of foods, drinks, tastes and textures, in a range of contexts and settings.

      I have developed an awareness that I need to eat, drink and sleep to live.

      I have developed an awareness that I need a balanced diet to grow, to be active and to maintain good physical health.

      I have developed an awareness of physical and emotional changes when I’m active.

      I have developed an awareness of the activities I enjoy and what I am good at.

      I can follow everyday routines to keep myself clean.

      I have developed an awareness that my body will change as I grow.

      I can recognise hazards and situations that could be harmful to my physical health.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I have developed the confidence to take part in different and regular physical activities, and to play on my own, with a partner and in small groups.

      I can concentrate when faced with physical challenges during unstructured play activities and focused tasks.

      I have developed the confidence to seek activities and equipment to suit my needs.

      I can use and improve basic movement skills in familiar and new situations.

      I have developed my ability to respond creatively to instructions, moving safely in and out of a variety of spaces when working on my own and with others.

      I can prepare food that I know is part of a balanced diet.

      I have developed an understanding that I need sleep, rest and a balanced diet to live and thrive.

      I can understand that there is a connection between diet and physical activity levels.

      I can describe the physical and emotional changes that I experience when I’m active.

      I can reflect on my own and others’ performance, describing strengths and areas for improvement.

      I can take more responsibility for my personal care and hygiene.

      I have developed an awareness that my body and emotions will change as I grow.

      I have developed an awareness that certain substances can bring about changes that can impact on my physical health.

      I can recognise and respond to behaviours and situations that are harmful to my physical health and that of others.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can engage in regular physical activity and find it rewarding.

      I can motivate myself to continue practising.

      I have developed the confidence to fulfil physical challenges set by myself and others.

      I can safely develop and apply a range of skills in familiar, new and changing situations.

      I can use space creatively to move in response to a variety of stimuli.

      I can experiment with a range of roles and responsibilities.

      I can plan and prepare basic, nutritious, balanced meals using simple, affordable ingredients.

      I have developed an appreciation of the importance of a balanced diet, sleep and rest on my developing body and mind.

      I have developed an understanding of the specific impact diet has on our capacity to thrive and how an appropriate energy balance is achieved through diet and physical activity.

      I can explain the physical and emotional changes that occur when I’m active.

      I can work on my own and with others to plan, monitor and evaluate performance, setting myself relevant targets.

      I can take responsibility for personal hygiene to protect my physical health.

      I have developed an understanding of the physical and emotional impact of puberty.

      I have developed an understanding that certain substances can bring about changes that can impact on my health.

      I have developed an understanding of behaviours and situations that are harmful to my physical health and that of others, and I can respond appropriately.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I have developed the enthusiasm and commitment to engage in regular physical activity.

      I have developed the confidence to select and apply a range of strategies, sustaining concentration to overcome physical challenges.

      I can transfer a range of skills from familiar to unfamiliar and changing contexts and environments.

      I have developed complex skills in a variety of roles and responsibilities, within a range of activities.

      I can plan and prepare a variety of nutritious and balanced meals using simple and affordable ingredients.

      I can apply my knowledge of diet and nutrition to make appropriate choices that have a positive impact on my health and well-being.

      I can make appropriate dietary choices that allow me to maintain an appropriate energy balance.

      I can analyse the physical and emotional changes that occur when I’m active.

      I can collaboratively plan, evaluate and refine performance in a range of activities.

      I can protect myself from disease, illness and infection.

      I can manage changes associated with puberty appropriately.

      I have developed an understanding of how certain substances bring about changes that can impact on my physical health.

      I can apply my understanding of health-harming behaviours and keep myself and others safe.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can value the benefits of participation in regular physical activity and have the self-motivation to do so.

      I have developed an appreciation of my movement ability and physical health and I am confident in my ability to meet physical challenges.

      I can proactively seek opportunities to develop my expertise in physical activity, in sport and physical health.

      I can independently adapt and apply skills across contexts in a range of activities and environments.

      I can apply sophisticated strategies to support my own progress and that of others in a wide range of activities.

      I can apply a range of techniques to prepare nutritious, balanced meals by combining tastes using affordable ingredients.

      I can apply my understanding of a balanced diet, adjusting my diet according to needs and personal circumstances.

      I can use my knowledge of diet and nutrition to support others with their dietary and lifestyle choices.

      I can critically evaluate the physical and emotional changes that occur when the human body is active.

      I can critically evaluate and independently select appropriate strategies for myself and others to improve physical health and well-being.

      I can use my knowledge of disease, illness and infection to protect myself and provide guidance and support to others.

      I can actively engage in health-promoting behaviours and value my own physical health and that of others.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

      • The interdependency of physical and mental health and emotional well-being.
      • The links between physical and mental health and emotional well-being, including body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
      • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
      • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

      Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

      • Risks and decision-making which have an impact on physical health.
      • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

      How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

      • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
      • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
      • The interaction of social influences and dynamics within team sports.

      Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

      • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • Creative movement and dance as a physical activity.
      • Developing gross and fine motor skills to support participation in art forms.

      Humanities

      • Elements of citizenship can be developed through respecting rules and fair play in team games.
      • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
      • Food production and sustainability.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • The relationship between physical and cognitive development has an impact on the acquisition of speech and language.
      • Acquisition of gross motor skills as a precursor of fine motor skills such as handwriting.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • The role of numeracy in purchasing and preparing food to support nutrition.
      • The role of numeracy in measuring distance, weight and time.

      Science and Technology

      • Biological aspects of growth and physical development.
      • Nutrition and food technology.
      • The biology of physical health and well-being (including impact of disease, physical activity and nutrition).
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

    Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can be aware of my perceptions and thoughts.

      I can focus my attention and am aware of being able to do this.

      I can notice some of my feelings.

      I can communicate some of my feelings.

      I can be aware of how feelings are communicated through actions.

      I can be aware that thoughts and feelings change, and I am starting to notice when change happens.

      I can be aware of the feelings of others.

      I can be aware of when others are kind to me and when I am kind to others.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can focus attention on my perceptions and thoughts.

      I can notice how I am feeling.

      I can communicate how I’m feeling.

      I can notice when I need help to manage my feelings in order to avoid acting impulsively.

      I can understand how and why my thoughts, feelings and actions change in response to different experiences.

      I can pay attention to the feelings of others and am learning to think about why they may feel that way.

      I can understand that we have a choice to act kindly.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise the benefits of being able to focus attention on my perceptions and thoughts and know that I am developing my self-awareness.

      I have developed strategies to self-regulate my emotions in a healthy way and can manage this with increasing independence and success.

      I can notice and understand how and why experiences impact on me and others.

      I can reflect on the way that past events and experiences have impacted upon my thoughts, feelings and actions.

      I have developed the ability to anticipate how future events may make me and others feel.

      I can consider the feelings of others and I can choose to act with kindness.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can independently focus attention on my perceptions, thoughts and feelings in order to further develop my self‑awareness.

      I can identify different strategies to self-regulate my emotions in response to a range of experiences.

      I can reflect and learn from the past in order to anticipate and prepare myself for future experiences.

      I can understand the value of being able to empathise with others and how this leads to actions which are compassionate and kind.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use my self-awareness to appreciate the complexity of my emotions and apply strategies to self-regulate them in a healthy way and to connect with others.

      I can reflect, respond and learn from past and current experiences in order to anticipate and prepare for future events.

      I can transfer these skills in order to care about the feelings and thoughts of others.

      I can empathise with others which helps me to be compassionate and kind towards myself and others.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

      • The interdependencies of physical health, mental health and emotional well-being.
      • Body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
      • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
      • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

      Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

      • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
      • The development of addictive behaviours and how they influence decision-making.

      How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

      • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
      • The impact of social influences on life experiences and how life experiences are perceived and managed.

      Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

      • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
      • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • Provides a range of opportunities to express emotions.
      • Engaging with art forms to explore and understand how these make us feel.

      Humanities

      • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • The role of language, both written and spoken, and the role of body language in communicating and expressing emotions.
      • The potential of literature to develop empathic skills.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • The influence of financial circumstances and decisions on mental health and emotional well-being.

      Science and Technology

      • The relationship between physiology and mental and emotional health (including growth and the structure of the brain).
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

    Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

    Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can make decisions based on what I like and dislike.

      I have developed an awareness that my decisions can affect me and others.

      I can, with support, identify some safe and unsafe actions and situations during indoor and outdoor activities.

      I can explain why I made some decisions.

      I can say what I think and take part in group decisions.

      I can choose activities based on my interests and explore different workplace roles through play.

      I have developed an understanding that I need money to buy things and that some things have to be saved for.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can identify different choices available to me, and make decisions based on what I know.

      I have developed an awareness that my decisions can be affected by the way I feel.

      I can identify safe and unsafe actions and situations and make decisions based on this.

      I can recognise that my decisions can impact on me and others, both now and in the future.

      I can take part in group decisions and understand why some decisions need to be made as a group.

      I can identify my skills and abilities and talk about jobs that I may choose to do.

      I can recognise the importance of using money responsibly and I can differentiate between wants and needs.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use a range of information and past experiences to make and explain decisions.

      I can identify and assess risks in familiar situations.

      I can understand that decisions can be influenced by a range of factors, including values, beliefs and bias.

      I have developed an awareness that decisions can have wide implications at a personal, local, national and global level, including legal and ethical.

      I have begun to recognise the relevance of my learning, skills and interests to my future life choices.

      I can set short-term and long-term personal goals in a variety of contexts, and I can explain how I will achieve these.

      I can manage my money, and budget appropriately.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use information from a variety of sources, including learning from past experiences, to make decisions which support the health and well-being of myself and others.

      I can critically consider relevant factors when making decisions.

      I can identify the ethical and legal implications of decisions, and use evidence to support and justify them.

      I can manage risks and take steps to reduce them within familiar situations.

      I can find relevant information regarding learning and career pathways in which I am interested.

      I can use information to set personal goals and work towards them.

      I have developed an understanding that I am responsible for managing my money effectively, and recognise that financial decisions can have short-term and long-term implications.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can research, examine and evaluate a range of evidence to make pro-social, ethical and reasoned decisions.

      I can explain my decisions, based on evidence and on my values.

      I have developed an awareness that emotions, cultural values and social values influence decision‑making, and I can critically examine my own attitudes, assumptions and behaviours.

      I have developed an understanding of the ethical and legal implications of decisions, and use them to support and justify decisions.

      I can anticipate, manage and respond to risks within different situations.

      I have developed an understanding of the experiences, knowledge and skills which are required for my preferred career and learning pathways.

      I can take steps to support my ambitions.

      I have developed an understanding that money can be used, borrowed and invested in different ways and that there may be risks involved.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

      • Making decisions which affect physical health.
      • Risks which have an impact on physical health.
      • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

      How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

      • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
      • The development of addictive behaviours and decision-making.

      How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

      • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
      • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and society.

      Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

      • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
      • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving skills and negotiation to support collective decisions and career skills.
      • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Humanities

      • How decision-making is a part of citizenship.
      • Ethical considerations in decision-making.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • Using numeracy to support positive decision-making, particularly financial decision-making.

      Science and Technology

      • Decisions, safety and addictive behaviours in respect of technology and in an online context.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions.

      Learners need to to know:

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions.

      Learners need to to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • set short-term and long-term goals in a variety of contexts, and make decisions that support the achievement of these goals
      • critically engage with a range of information and experiences to make informed decisions that they can justify.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • real-life work situations.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • set short-term and long-term goals in a variety of contexts, and make decisions that support the achievement of these goals
      • critically engage with a range of information and experiences to make informed decisions that they can justify.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • real-life work situations.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision‑making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • set short-term and long-term goals in a variety of contexts, and make decisions that support the achievement of these goals
      • critically engage with a range of information and experiences to make informed decisions that they can justify.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

    We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

    Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

    Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise and follow rules and norms in the groups and situations in which I take part.

      I can show care and respect for others.

      I have explored different social groups.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations in which I take part.

      I can change how I interact and behave in different situations appropriately.

      I can recognise that there are similarities and differences between people.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of rules, norms and pro-social behaviours of the social groups and situations in which I take part.

      I can interact pro-socially in the social groups and situations of which I am part.

      I have developed an understanding that there are different social groups and that they have different norms and attitudes, and I recognise that these may be positive or harmful.

      I have developed an understanding that my values and identity are influenced by the different social groups in which I take part.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise the rules, norms and pro-social behaviours in a variety of different social groups and situations.

      I can interact pro-socially in different social groups and situations.

      I can identify different social attitudes and influences and recognise where these are positive or harmful.

      I can engage with different social groups beyond those with which I am familiar.

      I have developed an understanding of how my values and identity are being informed by different social groups and influences.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of the rules, norms and pro-social behaviours of different social groups and situations.

      I can interact pro-socially and respectfully in different social groups and situations.

      I can recognise different social attitudes and influences.

      I can promote positive attitudes and values in different social groups, and, where appropriate, challenge harmful ones.

      I can engage with and show respect for different social groups beyond those with which I am familiar.

      I can recognise and understand how people’s values and identity are shaped by different social groups and influences.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

      • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
      • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
      • The interaction of social influences and team sports and team dynamics.

      How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

      • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
      • The impact of social influences on experiences and mental and emotional health, and perceptions of them.

      Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

      • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
      • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and situations.

      Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

      • Understanding how social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships, recognising that these can be positive and/or harmful.
      • Understanding how different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
      • Developing relationships within different social groups.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring social influences.

      Humanities

      • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
      • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • Exploring social influences as presented in and through different literature.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • Critically engaging with social norms in respect of money to support financial literacy.

      Science and Technology

      • Critically engaging with social norms and influences in respect of technology, and in an online context.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being.

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • reject and challenge harmful rules, norms, attitudes, values, stereotypes and prejudices in various social groups.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • the biases in thinking and behaviours that can arise from being in a social group.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • reject and challenge harmful rules, norms, attitudes, values, stereotypes and prejudices in various social groups.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • the biases in thinking and behaviours that can arise from being in a social group.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • reject and challenge harmful rules, norms, attitudes, values, stereotypes and prejudices in various social groups.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

    Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can identify who looks after me and who my family and friends are.

      I can get along with others with and without support.

      I can communicate what makes me feel uncomfortable and I can recognise kind and unkind behaviour.

      I can communicate my needs and feelings in my relationships.

      I can behave kindly towards others.

      I can understand that I have the right to be treated fairly and respectfully.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise that there are different types of relationships beyond my family and friends.

      I can recognise the relationships I have with others.

      I have developed the ability to make friends and can resolve disagreements, seeking support when needed.

      I can recognise how other people are feeling.

      I can understand the importance of respect and feeling safe in my relationships.

      I can communicate when I do not feel safe or respected.

      I can use what I know about what makes me and others comfortable to inform my behaviour.

      I can listen to others communicate their needs and feelings in my relationships.

      I can show respect towards the rights of others with support.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can understand that there are differences within similar types of relationships and that relationships change over time.

      I have developed an awareness that my relationships form part of my identity and sense of belonging.

      I can continue to make and maintain the relationships that matter to me.

      I can recognise and anticipate other people’s feelings.

      I can identify conflict and take steps to resolve it.

      I can recognise safe and unsafe situations in relationships and can seek support where needed.

      I can show respect to others in my relationships.

      I can communicate my needs and feelings and respond to those of others.

      I can respect the rights of others and understand how these impact on myself and others.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of the expectations and requirements of healthy behaviours in a range of relationships.

      I have developed an understanding that there is an interaction between my relationships with other people and my identity.

      I can form and maintain purposeful relationships with a wider circle of people.

      I can empathise with other people’s feelings and adapt my behaviour in response to this.

      I can respect other people’s points of view and use this to help resolve conflict.

      I can identify where my safety or the safety of someone else is threatened in a relationship and know how to respond to this.

      I can challenge harmful behaviours within relationships.

      I have developed an understanding of the value of compassion, respect and equity in developing healthy relationships.

      I can communicate my needs and feelings and respect those of others in different types of relationships.

      I can exercise my own rights and respect those of others.

      I can recognise that rights can be infringed and can identify this.

      I can apply my knowledge of rights to my relationships.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of the complex nature of relationships in a range of contexts and how they are influenced by a range of factors.

      I have developed an understanding of how people’s relationships inform their identity and how their identity informs their relationships.

      I can make meaningful connections with others and value my relationships with others in a range of contexts.

      I can form, maintain and develop relationships.

      I can recognise the characteristics of healthy relationships and can respond appropriately to unhealthy or harmful characteristics or behaviours.

      I can build relationships based on compassion, positive communication, respect and equity.

      I can advocate the rights of myself and others.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

      • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

        (From Progression step 3 onwards)
      • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.

      How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

      • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
      • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.

      Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

      • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
      • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving and negotiation to support career skills and collective decisions.
      • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).

      How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

      • How social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships in positive and harmful ways.
      • How different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
      • Developing relationships within different social groups.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring relationships.
      • Developing relationships through collaborations to create art.

      Humanities

      • The importance of developing relationships in supporting citizenship.
      • Understanding of spiritual relationships.
      • Understanding of rights, respect and equity.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • The role of language in communicating and expressing emotions in relationships.
      • The importance of communication in developing and maintaining relationships.
      • Using literature to explore relationships.

      Science and Technology

      • Exploring relationships in an online context.

        (from Progression step 3 onwards)
      • Biology and sexual relationships.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can move in different ways, and can choose to take part in active play on my own and alongside others.

      I can control gross and fine movements through active play and everyday tasks in different environments.

      I can respond to instructions about movement and can move safely in a variety of spaces.

      I can explore a variety of foods, drinks, tastes and textures, in a range of contexts and settings.

      I have developed an awareness that I need to eat, drink and sleep to live.

      I have developed an awareness that I need a balanced diet to grow, to be active and to maintain good physical health.

      I have developed an awareness of physical and emotional changes when I’m active.

      I have developed an awareness of the activities I enjoy and what I am good at.

      I can follow everyday routines to keep myself clean.

      I have developed an awareness that my body will change as I grow.

      I can recognise hazards and situations that could be harmful to my physical health.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can be aware of my perceptions and thoughts.

      I can focus my attention and am aware of being able to do this.

      I can notice some of my feelings.

      I can communicate some of my feelings.

      I can be aware of how feelings are communicated through actions.

      I can be aware that thoughts and feelings change, and I am starting to notice when change happens.

      I can be aware of the feelings of others.

      I can be aware of when others are kind to me and when I am kind to others.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can make decisions based on what I like and dislike.

      I have developed an awareness that my decisions can affect me and others.

      I can, with support, identify some safe and unsafe actions and situations during indoor and outdoor activities.

      I can explain why I made some decisions.

      I can say what I think and take part in group decisions.

      I can choose activities based on my interests and explore different workplace roles through play.

      I have developed an understanding that I need money to buy things and that some things have to be saved for.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise and follow rules and norms in the groups and situations in which I take part.

      I can show care and respect for others.

      I have explored different social groups.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can identify who looks after me and who my family and friends are.

      I can get along with others with and without support.

      I can communicate what makes me feel uncomfortable and I can recognise kind and unkind behaviour.

      I can communicate my needs and feelings in my relationships.

      I can behave kindly towards others.

      I can understand that I have the right to be treated fairly and respectfully.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The interdependency of physical and mental health and emotional well-being.
        • The links between physical and mental health and emotional well-being, including body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Risks and decision-making which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and dynamics within team sports.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

        (from Progression step 3 onwards)

        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Creative movement and dance as a physical activity.
        • Developing gross and fine motor skills to support participation in art forms.

        Humanities

        • Elements of citizenship can be developed through respecting rules and fair play in team games.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The relationship between physical and cognitive development has an impact on the acquisition of speech and language.
        • Acquisition of gross motor skills as a precursor of fine motor skills such as handwriting.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The role of numeracy in purchasing and preparing food to support nutrition.
        • The role of numeracy in measuring distance, weight and time.

        Science and Technology

        • Biological aspects of growth and physical development.
        • Nutrition and food technology.
        • The biology of physical health and well-being (including impact of disease, physical activity and nutrition).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The interdependencies of physical health, mental health and emotional well-being.
        • Body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and how they influence decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on life experiences and how life experiences are perceived and managed.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Provides a range of opportunities to express emotions.
        • Engaging with art forms to explore and understand how these make us feel.

        Humanities

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language, both written and spoken, and the role of body language in communicating and expressing emotions.
        • The potential of literature to develop empathic skills.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The influence of financial circumstances and decisions on mental health and emotional well-being.

        Science and Technology

        • The relationship between physiology and mental and emotional health (including growth and the structure of the brain).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Making decisions which affect physical health.
        • Risks which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and society.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving skills and negotiation to support collective decisions and career skills.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Humanities

        • How decision-making is a part of citizenship.
        • Ethical considerations in decision-making.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Using numeracy to support positive decision-making, particularly financial decision-making.

        Science and Technology

        • Decisions, safety and addictive behaviours in respect of technology and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions.

      Learners need to to know:

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and team sports and team dynamics.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on experiences and mental and emotional health, and perceptions of them.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and situations.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Understanding how social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships, recognising that these can be positive and/or harmful.
        • Understanding how different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring social influences.

        Humanities

        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Exploring social influences as presented in and through different literature.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Critically engaging with social norms in respect of money to support financial literacy.

        Science and Technology

        • Critically engaging with social norms and influences in respect of technology, and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

          (From Progression step 3 onwards)
        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving and negotiation to support career skills and collective decisions.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships in positive and harmful ways.
        • How different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring relationships.
        • Developing relationships through collaborations to create art.

        Humanities

        • The importance of developing relationships in supporting citizenship.
        • Understanding of spiritual relationships.
        • Understanding of rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language in communicating and expressing emotions in relationships.
        • The importance of communication in developing and maintaining relationships.
        • Using literature to explore relationships.

        Science and Technology

        • Exploring relationships in an online context.

          (from Progression step 3 onwards)
        • Biology and sexual relationships.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      Achievement outcomes

      I have developed the confidence to take part in different and regular physical activities, and to play on my own, with a partner and in small groups.

      I can concentrate when faced with physical challenges during unstructured play activities and focused tasks.

      I have developed the confidence to seek activities and equipment to suit my needs.

      I can use and improve basic movement skills in familiar and new situations.

      I have developed my ability to respond creatively to instructions, moving safely in and out of a variety of spaces when working on my own and with others.

      I can prepare food that I know is part of a balanced diet.

      I have developed an understanding that I need sleep, rest and a balanced diet to live and thrive.

      I can understand that there is a connection between diet and physical activity levels.

      I can describe the physical and emotional changes that I experience when I’m active.

      I can reflect on my own and others’ performance, describing strengths and areas for improvement.

      I can take more responsibility for my personal care and hygiene.

      I have developed an awareness that my body and emotions will change as I grow.

      I have developed an awareness that certain substances can bring about changes that can impact on my physical health.

      I can recognise and respond to behaviours and situations that are harmful to my physical health and that of others.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can focus attention on my perceptions and thoughts.

      I can notice how I am feeling.

      I can communicate how I’m feeling.

      I can notice when I need help to manage my feelings in order to avoid acting impulsively.

      I can understand how and why my thoughts, feelings and actions change in response to different experiences.

      I can pay attention to the feelings of others and am learning to think about why they may feel that way.

      I can understand that we have a choice to act kindly.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can identify different choices available to me, and make decisions based on what I know.

      I have developed an awareness that my decisions can be affected by the way I feel.

      I can identify safe and unsafe actions and situations and make decisions based on this.

      I can recognise that my decisions can impact on me and others, both now and in the future.

      I can take part in group decisions and understand why some decisions need to be made as a group.

      I can identify my skills and abilities and talk about jobs that I may choose to do.

      I can recognise the importance of using money responsibly and I can differentiate between wants and needs.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations in which I take part.

      I can change how I interact and behave in different situations appropriately.

      I can recognise that there are similarities and differences between people.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise that there are different types of relationships beyond my family and friends.

      I can recognise the relationships I have with others.

      I have developed the ability to make friends and can resolve disagreements, seeking support when needed.

      I can recognise how other people are feeling.

      I can understand the importance of respect and feeling safe in my relationships.

      I can communicate when I do not feel safe or respected.

      I can use what I know about what makes me and others comfortable to inform my behaviour.

      I can listen to others communicate their needs and feelings in my relationships.

      I can show respect towards the rights of others with support.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The interdependency of physical and mental health and emotional well-being.
        • The links between physical and mental health and emotional well-being, including body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Risks and decision-making which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and dynamics within team sports.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

        (from Progression step 3 onwards)

        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Creative movement and dance as a physical activity.
        • Developing gross and fine motor skills to support participation in art forms.

        Humanities

        • Elements of citizenship can be developed through respecting rules and fair play in team games.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The relationship between physical and cognitive development has an impact on the acquisition of speech and language.
        • Acquisition of gross motor skills as a precursor of fine motor skills such as handwriting.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The role of numeracy in purchasing and preparing food to support nutrition.
        • The role of numeracy in measuring distance, weight and time.

        Science and Technology

        • Biological aspects of growth and physical development.
        • Nutrition and food technology.
        • The biology of physical health and well-being (including impact of disease, physical activity and nutrition).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The interdependencies of physical health, mental health and emotional well-being.
        • Body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and how they influence decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on life experiences and how life experiences are perceived and managed.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Provides a range of opportunities to express emotions.
        • Engaging with art forms to explore and understand how these make us feel.

        Humanities

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language, both written and spoken, and the role of body language in communicating and expressing emotions.
        • The potential of literature to develop empathic skills.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The influence of financial circumstances and decisions on mental health and emotional well-being.

        Science and Technology

        • The relationship between physiology and mental and emotional health (including growth and the structure of the brain).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Making decisions which affect physical health.
        • Risks which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and society.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving skills and negotiation to support collective decisions and career skills.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Humanities

        • How decision-making is a part of citizenship.
        • Ethical considerations in decision-making.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Using numeracy to support positive decision-making, particularly financial decision-making.

        Science and Technology

        • Decisions, safety and addictive behaviours in respect of technology and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions.

      Learners need to to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and team sports and team dynamics.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on experiences and mental and emotional health, and perceptions of them.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and situations.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Understanding how social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships, recognising that these can be positive and/or harmful.
        • Understanding how different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring social influences.

        Humanities

        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Exploring social influences as presented in and through different literature.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Critically engaging with social norms in respect of money to support financial literacy.

        Science and Technology

        • Critically engaging with social norms and influences in respect of technology, and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

          (From Progression step 3 onwards)
        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving and negotiation to support career skills and collective decisions.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships in positive and harmful ways.
        • How different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring relationships.
        • Developing relationships through collaborations to create art.

        Humanities

        • The importance of developing relationships in supporting citizenship.
        • Understanding of spiritual relationships.
        • Understanding of rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language in communicating and expressing emotions in relationships.
        • The importance of communication in developing and maintaining relationships.
        • Using literature to explore relationships.

        Science and Technology

        • Exploring relationships in an online context.

          (from Progression step 3 onwards)
        • Biology and sexual relationships.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can engage in regular physical activity and find it rewarding.

      I can motivate myself to continue practising.

      I have developed the confidence to fulfil physical challenges set by myself and others.

      I can safely develop and apply a range of skills in familiar, new and changing situations.

      I can use space creatively to move in response to a variety of stimuli.

      I can experiment with a range of roles and responsibilities.

      I can plan and prepare basic, nutritious, balanced meals using simple, affordable ingredients.

      I have developed an appreciation of the importance of a balanced diet, sleep and rest on my developing body and mind.

      I have developed an understanding of the specific impact diet has on our capacity to thrive and how an appropriate energy balance is achieved through diet and physical activity.

      I can explain the physical and emotional changes that occur when I’m active.

      I can work on my own and with others to plan, monitor and evaluate performance, setting myself relevant targets.

      I can take responsibility for personal hygiene to protect my physical health.

      I have developed an understanding of the physical and emotional impact of puberty.

      I have developed an understanding that certain substances can bring about changes that can impact on my health.

      I have developed an understanding of behaviours and situations that are harmful to my physical health and that of others, and I can respond appropriately.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise the benefits of being able to focus attention on my perceptions and thoughts and know that I am developing my self-awareness.

      I have developed strategies to self-regulate my emotions in a healthy way and can manage this with increasing independence and success.

      I can notice and understand how and why experiences impact on me and others.

      I can reflect on the way that past events and experiences have impacted upon my thoughts, feelings and actions.

      I have developed the ability to anticipate how future events may make me and others feel.

      I can consider the feelings of others and I can choose to act with kindness.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use a range of information and past experiences to make and explain decisions.

      I can identify and assess risks in familiar situations.

      I can understand that decisions can be influenced by a range of factors, including values, beliefs and bias.

      I have developed an awareness that decisions can have wide implications at a personal, local, national and global level, including legal and ethical.

      I have begun to recognise the relevance of my learning, skills and interests to my future life choices.

      I can set short-term and long-term personal goals in a variety of contexts, and I can explain how I will achieve these.

      I can manage my money, and budget appropriately.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of rules, norms and pro-social behaviours of the social groups and situations in which I take part.

      I can interact pro-socially in the social groups and situations of which I am part.

      I have developed an understanding that there are different social groups and that they have different norms and attitudes, and I recognise that these may be positive or harmful.

      I have developed an understanding that my values and identity are influenced by the different social groups in which I take part.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can understand that there are differences within similar types of relationships and that relationships change over time.

      I have developed an awareness that my relationships form part of my identity and sense of belonging.

      I can continue to make and maintain the relationships that matter to me.

      I can recognise and anticipate other people’s feelings.

      I can identify conflict and take steps to resolve it.

      I can recognise safe and unsafe situations in relationships and can seek support where needed.

      I can show respect to others in my relationships.

      I can communicate my needs and feelings and respond to those of others.

      I can respect the rights of others and understand how these impact on myself and others.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The interdependency of physical and mental health and emotional well-being.
        • The links between physical and mental health and emotional well-being, including body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Risks and decision-making which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and dynamics within team sports.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

        (from Progression step 3 onwards)

        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Creative movement and dance as a physical activity.
        • Developing gross and fine motor skills to support participation in art forms.

        Humanities

        • Elements of citizenship can be developed through respecting rules and fair play in team games.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The relationship between physical and cognitive development has an impact on the acquisition of speech and language.
        • Acquisition of gross motor skills as a precursor of fine motor skills such as handwriting.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The role of numeracy in purchasing and preparing food to support nutrition.
        • The role of numeracy in measuring distance, weight and time.

        Science and Technology

        • Biological aspects of growth and physical development.
        • Nutrition and food technology.
        • The biology of physical health and well-being (including impact of disease, physical activity and nutrition).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The interdependencies of physical health, mental health and emotional well-being.
        • Body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and how they influence decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on life experiences and how life experiences are perceived and managed.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Provides a range of opportunities to express emotions.
        • Engaging with art forms to explore and understand how these make us feel.

        Humanities

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language, both written and spoken, and the role of body language in communicating and expressing emotions.
        • The potential of literature to develop empathic skills.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The influence of financial circumstances and decisions on mental health and emotional well-being.

        Science and Technology

        • The relationship between physiology and mental and emotional health (including growth and the structure of the brain).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Making decisions which affect physical health.
        • Risks which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and society.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving skills and negotiation to support collective decisions and career skills.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Humanities

        • How decision-making is a part of citizenship.
        • Ethical considerations in decision-making.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Using numeracy to support positive decision-making, particularly financial decision-making.

        Science and Technology

        • Decisions, safety and addictive behaviours in respect of technology and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • set short-term and long-term goals in a variety of contexts, and make decisions that support the achievement of these goals
      • critically engage with a range of information and experiences to make informed decisions that they can justify.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and team sports and team dynamics.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on experiences and mental and emotional health, and perceptions of them.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and situations.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Understanding how social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships, recognising that these can be positive and/or harmful.
        • Understanding how different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring social influences.

        Humanities

        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Exploring social influences as presented in and through different literature.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Critically engaging with social norms in respect of money to support financial literacy.

        Science and Technology

        • Critically engaging with social norms and influences in respect of technology, and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being.

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • reject and challenge harmful rules, norms, attitudes, values, stereotypes and prejudices in various social groups.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

          (From Progression step 3 onwards)
        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving and negotiation to support career skills and collective decisions.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships in positive and harmful ways.
        • How different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring relationships.
        • Developing relationships through collaborations to create art.

        Humanities

        • The importance of developing relationships in supporting citizenship.
        • Understanding of spiritual relationships.
        • Understanding of rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language in communicating and expressing emotions in relationships.
        • The importance of communication in developing and maintaining relationships.
        • Using literature to explore relationships.

        Science and Technology

        • Exploring relationships in an online context.

          (from Progression step 3 onwards)
        • Biology and sexual relationships.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      Achievement outcomes

      I have developed the enthusiasm and commitment to engage in regular physical activity.

      I have developed the confidence to select and apply a range of strategies, sustaining concentration to overcome physical challenges.

      I can transfer a range of skills from familiar to unfamiliar and changing contexts and environments.

      I have developed complex skills in a variety of roles and responsibilities, within a range of activities.

      I can plan and prepare a variety of nutritious and balanced meals using simple and affordable ingredients.

      I can apply my knowledge of diet and nutrition to make appropriate choices that have a positive impact on my health and well-being.

      I can make appropriate dietary choices that allow me to maintain an appropriate energy balance.

      I can analyse the physical and emotional changes that occur when I’m active.

      I can collaboratively plan, evaluate and refine performance in a range of activities.

      I can protect myself from disease, illness and infection.

      I can manage changes associated with puberty appropriately.

      I have developed an understanding of how certain substances bring about changes that can impact on my physical health.

      I can apply my understanding of health-harming behaviours and keep myself and others safe.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can independently focus attention on my perceptions, thoughts and feelings in order to further develop my self‑awareness.

      I can identify different strategies to self-regulate my emotions in response to a range of experiences.

      I can reflect and learn from the past in order to anticipate and prepare myself for future experiences.

      I can understand the value of being able to empathise with others and how this leads to actions which are compassionate and kind.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use information from a variety of sources, including learning from past experiences, to make decisions which support the health and well-being of myself and others.

      I can critically consider relevant factors when making decisions.

      I can identify the ethical and legal implications of decisions, and use evidence to support and justify them.

      I can manage risks and take steps to reduce them within familiar situations.

      I can find relevant information regarding learning and career pathways in which I am interested.

      I can use information to set personal goals and work towards them.

      I have developed an understanding that I am responsible for managing my money effectively, and recognise that financial decisions can have short-term and long-term implications.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise the rules, norms and pro-social behaviours in a variety of different social groups and situations.

      I can interact pro-socially in different social groups and situations.

      I can identify different social attitudes and influences and recognise where these are positive or harmful.

      I can engage with different social groups beyond those with which I am familiar.

      I have developed an understanding of how my values and identity are being informed by different social groups and influences.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of the expectations and requirements of healthy behaviours in a range of relationships.

      I have developed an understanding that there is an interaction between my relationships with other people and my identity.

      I can form and maintain purposeful relationships with a wider circle of people.

      I can empathise with other people’s feelings and adapt my behaviour in response to this.

      I can respect other people’s points of view and use this to help resolve conflict.

      I can identify where my safety or the safety of someone else is threatened in a relationship and know how to respond to this.

      I can challenge harmful behaviours within relationships.

      I have developed an understanding of the value of compassion, respect and equity in developing healthy relationships.

      I can communicate my needs and feelings and respect those of others in different types of relationships.

      I can exercise my own rights and respect those of others.

      I can recognise that rights can be infringed and can identify this.

      I can apply my knowledge of rights to my relationships.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The interdependency of physical and mental health and emotional well-being.
        • The links between physical and mental health and emotional well-being, including body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Risks and decision-making which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and dynamics within team sports.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

        (from Progression step 3 onwards)

        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Creative movement and dance as a physical activity.
        • Developing gross and fine motor skills to support participation in art forms.

        Humanities

        • Elements of citizenship can be developed through respecting rules and fair play in team games.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The relationship between physical and cognitive development has an impact on the acquisition of speech and language.
        • Acquisition of gross motor skills as a precursor of fine motor skills such as handwriting.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The role of numeracy in purchasing and preparing food to support nutrition.
        • The role of numeracy in measuring distance, weight and time.

        Science and Technology

        • Biological aspects of growth and physical development.
        • Nutrition and food technology.
        • The biology of physical health and well-being (including impact of disease, physical activity and nutrition).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The interdependencies of physical health, mental health and emotional well-being.
        • Body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and how they influence decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on life experiences and how life experiences are perceived and managed.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Provides a range of opportunities to express emotions.
        • Engaging with art forms to explore and understand how these make us feel.

        Humanities

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language, both written and spoken, and the role of body language in communicating and expressing emotions.
        • The potential of literature to develop empathic skills.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The influence of financial circumstances and decisions on mental health and emotional well-being.

        Science and Technology

        • The relationship between physiology and mental and emotional health (including growth and the structure of the brain).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Making decisions which affect physical health.
        • Risks which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and society.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving skills and negotiation to support collective decisions and career skills.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Humanities

        • How decision-making is a part of citizenship.
        • Ethical considerations in decision-making.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Using numeracy to support positive decision-making, particularly financial decision-making.

        Science and Technology

        • Decisions, safety and addictive behaviours in respect of technology and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • real-life work situations.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision-making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • set short-term and long-term goals in a variety of contexts, and make decisions that support the achievement of these goals
      • critically engage with a range of information and experiences to make informed decisions that they can justify.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and team sports and team dynamics.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on experiences and mental and emotional health, and perceptions of them.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and situations.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Understanding how social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships, recognising that these can be positive and/or harmful.
        • Understanding how different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring social influences.

        Humanities

        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Exploring social influences as presented in and through different literature.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Critically engaging with social norms in respect of money to support financial literacy.

        Science and Technology

        • Critically engaging with social norms and influences in respect of technology, and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • the biases in thinking and behaviours that can arise from being in a social group.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • reject and challenge harmful rules, norms, attitudes, values, stereotypes and prejudices in various social groups.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

          (From Progression step 3 onwards)
        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving and negotiation to support career skills and collective decisions.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships in positive and harmful ways.
        • How different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring relationships.
        • Developing relationships through collaborations to create art.

        Humanities

        • The importance of developing relationships in supporting citizenship.
        • Understanding of spiritual relationships.
        • Understanding of rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language in communicating and expressing emotions in relationships.
        • The importance of communication in developing and maintaining relationships.
        • Using literature to explore relationships.

        Science and Technology

        • Exploring relationships in an online context.

          (from Progression step 3 onwards)
        • Biology and sexual relationships.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      Becoming more self-regulated: Learners become increasingly independent and competent in terms of regulating their emotions and behaviours.

      Becoming more socially responsible: Learners grow in self-awareness and in the way they think about how their actions impact on others.

      Sophistication of knowledge and skills: Issues dealt with can be revisited and explored in more depth as learners’ understanding and ability become more sophisticated.

      Developmental growth: Progression aligns with the milestones of child development.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can value the benefits of participation in regular physical activity and have the self-motivation to do so.

      I have developed an appreciation of my movement ability and physical health and I am confident in my ability to meet physical challenges.

      I can proactively seek opportunities to develop my expertise in physical activity, in sport and physical health.

      I can independently adapt and apply skills across contexts in a range of activities and environments.

      I can apply sophisticated strategies to support my own progress and that of others in a wide range of activities.

      I can apply a range of techniques to prepare nutritious, balanced meals by combining tastes using affordable ingredients.

      I can apply my understanding of a balanced diet, adjusting my diet according to needs and personal circumstances.

      I can use my knowledge of diet and nutrition to support others with their dietary and lifestyle choices.

      I can critically evaluate the physical and emotional changes that occur when the human body is active.

      I can critically evaluate and independently select appropriate strategies for myself and others to improve physical health and well-being.

      I can use my knowledge of disease, illness and infection to protect myself and provide guidance and support to others.

      I can actively engage in health-promoting behaviours and value my own physical health and that of others.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use my self-awareness to appreciate the complexity of my emotions and apply strategies to self-regulate them in a healthy way and to connect with others.

      I can reflect, respond and learn from past and current experiences in order to anticipate and prepare for future events.

      I can transfer these skills in order to care about the feelings and thoughts of others.

      I can empathise with others which helps me to be compassionate and kind towards myself and others.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can research, examine and evaluate a range of evidence to make pro-social, ethical and reasoned decisions.

      I can explain my decisions, based on evidence and on my values.

      I have developed an awareness that emotions, cultural values and social values influence decision‑making, and I can critically examine my own attitudes, assumptions and behaviours.

      I have developed an understanding of the ethical and legal implications of decisions, and use them to support and justify decisions.

      I can anticipate, manage and respond to risks within different situations.

      I have developed an understanding of the experiences, knowledge and skills which are required for my preferred career and learning pathways.

      I can take steps to support my ambitions.

      I have developed an understanding that money can be used, borrowed and invested in different ways and that there may be risks involved.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of the rules, norms and pro-social behaviours of different social groups and situations.

      I can interact pro-socially and respectfully in different social groups and situations.

      I can recognise different social attitudes and influences.

      I can promote positive attitudes and values in different social groups, and, where appropriate, challenge harmful ones.

      I can engage with and show respect for different social groups beyond those with which I am familiar.

      I can recognise and understand how people’s values and identity are shaped by different social groups and influences.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      Achievement outcomes

      I have developed an understanding of the complex nature of relationships in a range of contexts and how they are influenced by a range of factors.

      I have developed an understanding of how people’s relationships inform their identity and how their identity informs their relationships.

      I can make meaningful connections with others and value my relationships with others in a range of contexts.

      I can form, maintain and develop relationships.

      I can recognise the characteristics of healthy relationships and can respond appropriately to unhealthy or harmful characteristics or behaviours.

      I can build relationships based on compassion, positive communication, respect and equity.

      I can advocate the rights of myself and others.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand the factors that affect physical health and well-being, such as a balanced diet, physical activity, personal care and hygiene, sleep, and protection from infection. From this understanding, learners will be able to develop positive, informed behaviours that support them both to care for and to respect themselves and others. These behaviours in turn will contribute towards developing learners’ sense of self-worth and their overall mood and energy levels.

      If learners are provided with enjoyable and informative experiences, such as regular physical activity and a nutritious, balanced diet, they will develop the dispositions to lead lifestyles which support their physical health and well-being.

      Through developing well-being and good physical health, learners’ physical competence will be enhanced along with their knowledge and understanding about the human body. In addition, their confidence and motivation will increase and this in turn will support them to lead healthy and active lifestyles.

      This area of learning and experience recognises how physical development is closely interrelated with lifelong cognitive development, for example how it supports speech and language development during the early years. It also recognises how physical health and well-being are influenced by the way we view ourselves in relation to our environment and to others, and recognises the importance of acknowledging and accepting differences.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The interdependency of physical and mental health and emotional well-being.
        • The links between physical and mental health and emotional well-being, including body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Risks and decision-making which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and dynamics within team sports.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

        (from Progression step 3 onwards)

        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Creative movement and dance as a physical activity.
        • Developing gross and fine motor skills to support participation in art forms.

        Humanities

        • Elements of citizenship can be developed through respecting rules and fair play in team games.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The relationship between physical and cognitive development has an impact on the acquisition of speech and language.
        • Acquisition of gross motor skills as a precursor of fine motor skills such as handwriting.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The role of numeracy in purchasing and preparing food to support nutrition.
        • The role of numeracy in measuring distance, weight and time.

        Science and Technology

        • Biological aspects of growth and physical development.
        • Nutrition and food technology.
        • The biology of physical health and well-being (including impact of disease, physical activity and nutrition).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to practise strategies that they have developed to support their physical health and well-being
      • opportunities to choose, prepare and eat a range of foods that can support a healthy balanced diet
      • outdoor learning to support physical health and well-being
      • a range of ongoing, daily opportunities to be physically active
      • opportunities to be physically active in a variety of environments (including indoor, outdoor, different surfaces, heights, in and around water)
      • a range of physical activities through fun and engaging approaches to learning.

      Learners need to know:

      • how their physical health and well-being is influenced by a range of factors, both in the short and long term, including a balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, personal care and hygiene, protection from infection, and the use and misuse of substances
      • the importance of sustainable, balanced and positive behaviours to support physical health and well-being
      • that physical health and well-being supports mental health and emotional well-being
      • how physical growth and development influences physical and emotional health and well-being
      • the role and importance of the physical self as part of one’s identity.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • identify and practise strategies to support their physical health and well-being
      • plan and prepare food that can form part of a healthy, balanced diet
      • develop their competence and confidence in a range of activities which support physical health and well-being
      • take responsibility for their own personal care and hygiene.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how mental health and emotional well-being influence the way people think, feel and behave. It will also help learners explore the connections between life experiences and mental and emotional well-being.

      Through understanding the conditions that promote and impact on mental health and emotional well-being, learners will be supported to manage the experiences that they encounter. They will also be supported to develop their ability to focus their attention and to be aware of how they are thinking and feeling during their experiences. In addition, they will explore how experiences are perceived. This will give learners the opportunities to build skills of self-awareness and empathy. Self-awareness allows learners to be receptive and reflective, which helps them to adapt their behaviour and actions to different situations. This in turn enables learners to act with empathy, compassion and kindness towards themselves and others.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The interdependencies of physical health, mental health and emotional well-being.
        • Body image, identity and physiological changes in relation to emotions.
        • Responding to the impact of puberty on emotional well-being.
        • The role of self-regulation to support physical health and well-being and in overcoming challenges in physical activity.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and how they influence decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on life experiences and how life experiences are perceived and managed.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Provides a range of opportunities to express emotions.
        • Engaging with art forms to explore and understand how these make us feel.

        Humanities

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language, both written and spoken, and the role of body language in communicating and expressing emotions.
        • The potential of literature to develop empathic skills.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • The influence of financial circumstances and decisions on mental health and emotional well-being.

        Science and Technology

        • The relationship between physiology and mental and emotional health (including growth and the structure of the brain).

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to turn an empathic feeling into an act of kindness and compassion for themselves and others
      • opportunities which promote reflection both individually and in a group, within a supportive and protective environment
      • safe and supportive discussions about experiences which affect mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to know:

      • that our mental health and emotional state is susceptible to change
      • how self-image impacts on mental health and well-being
      • about a range of strategies which promote awareness of mental health and well-being
      • how the brain is interconnected with the rest of the body, which includes the stress response system and physiological changes that occur
      • that they can access a range of support to manage their mental health and emotional well-being
      • that other people’s mental health and emotional well-being may be different from their own
      • about medical conditions that may affect our mental health and emotional well-being
      • that the environment can impact upon our mental health and emotional well-being.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • recognise and articulate what they are perceiving, thinking and feeling in order to develop their self-awareness and to understand their emotions
      • reflect upon, and anticipate how, experiences may affect them
      • develop strategies to self-regulate without guidance from others
      • communicate how they are feeling and ask for help when needed.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners to understand how decisions and actions, whether they are made individually or collectively, have a clear and direct impact on the health and well-being of individuals and society.

      Understanding the factors that influence decision-making affecting health and well-being will help learners to make considered, informed decisions that they are able to justify and explain. Learners will be supported to develop the skills necessary to critically consider choices, and to understand the risks and possible consequences of their decisions for themselves and others.

      Learners will develop their awareness of the importance of actively contributing to collective decisions. By developing the ability to select appropriate goals and plan a course of action to achieve them, anticipating and overcoming challenges, learners will also be able to take responsibility for their own life choices.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Making decisions which affect physical health.
        • Risks which have an impact on physical health.
        • Decision-making in physical activity (including selecting appropriate equipment and strategies).

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in decision-making.
        • The development of addictive behaviours and decision-making.

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and society.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving skills and negotiation to support collective decisions and career skills.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Humanities

        • How decision-making is a part of citizenship.
        • Ethical considerations in decision-making.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Using numeracy to support positive decision-making, particularly financial decision-making.

        Science and Technology

        • Decisions, safety and addictive behaviours in respect of technology and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • opportunities to reflect on personal beliefs and values, and to consider their effect on decision-making
      • overcoming challenges by considering the consequences of decisions and responding to them
      • taking measured risks in a safe environment
      • making decisions outside their comfort zone
      • contributing to collective decisions

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • real-life work situations.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • how decisions can affect our health and well-being and impact on the health and well-being of others
      • how collective decisions can be supported by a fair process
      • that there are many factors that influence decision‑making
      • where and how to seek support and information to aid decision-making and personal safety
      • that there is a wide range of voluntary and paid roles that they can choose to follow

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • that some behaviours are addictive and can influence the decisions they make
      • that there are rules and laws to regulate and support decision-making, and that decisions taken may have legal consequences.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • identify and manage risks when making decisions
      • make safe decisions in a variety of situations and environments
      • take steps to support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • respond appropriately in harmful or unsafe situations
      • make decisions when using technology which support their health and well-being and that of others
      • contribute constructively when making decisions as part of a group
      • take responsibility for their actions, and identify and reflect on the effects of their decisions in order to evaluate them and improve future decision-making
      • engage with ethical considerations and the effects on others when making decisions

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • make financial decisions which support their own health and well-being and that of others
      • make reasoned and informed decisions about their learning and career pathways

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • set short-term and long-term goals in a variety of contexts, and make decisions that support the achievement of these goals
      • critically engage with a range of information and experiences to make informed decisions that they can justify.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand the important role of social influences on our behaviours. Our identity, values, health and well-being are shaped by rules, social norms and attitudes that are created and enforced by different social groups. Learners will find out how they are influenced by a range of social contexts, including by different peer groups, different cultures, the media and the online world.

      We experience different rules, social norms and attitudes through interacting with our own various social groups and communities, as well as with those of different cultures. These influences present and enforce norms and values about a range of issues affecting health and well-being. From understanding this, learners will gain an understanding of how their own decisions, relationships and experiences are shaped by social influences; this understanding will enable them to make positive, informed choices.

      Learners will become aware that social norms and attitudes can shape the values and behaviours which influence our health and well-being often without us realising. Learners will therefore need to critically engage with these social influences. On the one hand, they will need to be able to identify, follow and promote positive norms, and on the other hand, recognise, reject and challenge harmful ones, so that they can avoid behaviours that are detrimental to their own health and well-being and that of others.

      Recognising and following positive norms enables learners to be full and active members of a range of social groups. This helps learners to develop a sense of belonging to different groups which in turn supports their health and well-being. Critically engaging with these different influences also requires learners to acknowledge differences, recognising how each person’s identity and values are in part a product of their different social groups. Interacting with other social groups supports learners to develop respect and understanding for others with different backgrounds.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • The impact of social influences on behaviours that affect physical health.
        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on physical self-image and identity.
        • The interaction of social influences and team sports and team dynamics.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The role of self-regulation in engaging critically with social influences.
        • The impact of social influences on experiences and mental and emotional health, and perceptions of them.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Understanding social influences on decision-making (including financial).
        • The impact of decisions on wider social groups and situations.

        Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being.

        • Understanding how social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships, recognising that these can be positive and/or harmful.
        • Understanding how different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring social influences.

        Humanities

        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Exploring social influences as presented in and through different literature.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Critically engaging with social norms in respect of money to support financial literacy.

        Science and Technology

        • Critically engaging with social norms and influences in respect of technology, and in an online context.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • interaction with a range of social groups, both familiar and unfamiliar
      • situations and contexts that provoke reflection on social influences and their consequences
      • the demands of different social situations
      • opportunities to explore and evaluate the consequences of different responses to rules and norms.

      Learners need to know:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • that different social groups and situations have their own rules and norms
      • the different rules and norms of the social groups and situations of which they are part

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • how social norms, rules, values and attitudes of different social groups can influence our own values, health and well-being
      • the influence that media and the online world can have on well-being, attitudes and values

      (from Progression step 4 onwards)

      • the biases in thinking and behaviours that can arise from being in a social group.

      Learners need to be able to:

      (from Progression step 1 onwards)

      • recognise the rules, norms, attitudes and values of different social groups
      • adapt their behaviour in response to the expectations and norms of a variety of contexts

      (from Progression step 2 onwards)

      • follow and promote positive rules, norms, attitudes and values in different social groups
      • develop awareness of how their own identity, values, attitudes and behaviours are being shaped by the situations and social groups to which they belong and in which they function
      • understand and respect the identity, values, attitudes and behaviours of other people are shaped by their social groups
      • critically evaluate the content of different types of media and the online world, recognising the impact that it has on attitude, values and well-being

      (from Progression step 3 onwards)

      • reject and challenge harmful rules, norms, attitudes, values, stereotypes and prejudices in various social groups.
    • The Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience will help learners understand how healthy relationships are a vital component of maintaining a healthy body and mind. They contribute to our sense of belonging and emotional well-being. They create stability and make us feel included, allowing us to thrive. If we feel lonely or isolated, we run the risk of suffering with poor mental and physical health.

      Throughout our lives we are likely to experience and develop a diverse range of personal relationships. Each of these relationships elicits responses that help us to grow and to learn about ourselves and others. Understanding how healthy relationships are formed, developed and maintained enables us to develop the skills and attitudes which allow us to create healthy relationships of our own. These relationships often support us through difficult and stressful situations and help us to become healthy, confident individuals. Knowing how to be safe in our relationships and when and how to seek support for ourselves and others is fundamental to health and well-being.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Health and Well-being Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits.

        • Developing relationships and working collaboratively through team games.

          (From Progression step 3 onwards)
        • The link between puberty, sexuality and sexual relationships.

        How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.

        • The importance of empathy and compassion in developing positive relationships.
        • The importance of communicating feelings in relationships.

        Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others.

        • Accessing support and information to ensure personal safety in relationships.
        • Building relationships with others, using problem-solving and negotiation to support career skills and collective decisions.
        • Decision-making in the context of different relationships (including consent).

        How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being.

        • How social attitudes and norms can impact on relationships in positive and harmful ways.
        • How different social groups and societies present norms of different relationships.
        • Developing relationships within different social groups.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of the Expressive Arts and related pedagogies in exploring relationships.
        • Developing relationships through collaborations to create art.

        Humanities

        • The importance of developing relationships in supporting citizenship.
        • Understanding of spiritual relationships.
        • Understanding of rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The role of language in communicating and expressing emotions in relationships.
        • The importance of communication in developing and maintaining relationships.
        • Using literature to explore relationships.

        Science and Technology

        • Exploring relationships in an online context.

          (from Progression step 3 onwards)
        • Biology and sexual relationships.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to form and develop relationships in different contexts and develop meaningful connections with other living things
      • opportunities to participate in team activities and collaborate with others, taking on a variety of roles
      • opportunities to explore a wider range of relationships beyond the personal, everyday experience including reading fiction and non-fiction, film, television, gaming and the virtual world
      • opportunities to explore and critically evaluate different approaches to resolving conflict.

      Learners need to to know:

      • relationships are fundamental to well-being and can have both a positive and negative impact on it
      • there are a wide range of relationship types (including friendship, parental, familial, teacher/learner, romantic, spiritual, virtual, sexual and professional) – when these are healthy, they can support and benefit us
      • how to access support and information to foster healthy relationships and ensure personal safety
      • while there are similar types of relationships, each relationship is unique and will vary from person to person
      • the importance of respect and equity, and of recognising one another’s rights in terms of developing healthy and safe relationships
      • the importance of privacy and consent
      • how to recognise and protect themselves from unwanted sexual attention in relationships
      • what may constitute an unhealthy or abusive relationship.

      Learners need to be able to:

      • communicate their needs and feelings
      • seek support when required
      • form, develop and maintain healthy relationships in a range of contexts
      • recognise and respect the views, values and rights of others in order to develop and maintain relationships
      • recognise and respond to the needs and feelings of others, demonstrating empathy and compassion
      • use problem-solving, cooperation and negotiation to sustain relationships
      • identify and respond constructively and appropriately to conflict in relationships
      • recognise unwanted attention and respond appropriately
      • recognise unhealthy or harmful relationships and seek help to respond to these.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

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