Most online service providers offer a reporting function for account holders and some offer a public reporting function to enable a third party to make a report on behalf of a child or young person.

The app guides for families on Hwb give advice on how to report an issue on some of the most popular social networks, apps and gaming sites.

Here are some other specialist reporting tools.

The UK’s national reporting centre for fraud and cybercrime where you should report fraud if you have been scammed, defrauded or experienced cybercrime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Report concerns about online sexual abuse safely and securely on the Child Exploitation and Online Protection website.

Report child sexual abuse content and non-photographic child sexual abuse images.

A national reporting centre to assist with reporting harmful content online. The service aims to provide support specifically for the following types of harm: online abuse; bullying or harassment; threats; impersonation; unwanted sexual advances (not image based); violent content; self-harm or suicide content; pornographic content.

Children and young people can use Childline’s Report Remove tool to report nude images and videos they are worried have been, or might be, shared publically.