Assessment proposals to inform the development of statutory guidance

Draft guidance to support the new Curriculum for Wales 2022 has been designed with the four purposes of the curriculum at its heart. Our proposal is that this curriculum will provide our learners with authentic and relevant learning experiences, and equip them with the knowledge, skills and dispositions to respond to future challenges as lifelong learners. It will be engaging and ambitious, providing support and challenge for each individual learner to make progress along their own learning journey.

This document sets out proposals that will underpin assessment in Curriculum for Wales 2022. Learner progression and their journey towards the four purposes of the curriculum have been central in its development. We put forward high-level principles to provide broad direction at a national level, while ensuring flexibility for funded non-maintained settings and schools to plan assessment appropriately to support their curricula at a local level.

The legislative proposals to support the new curriculum and assessment arrangements were recently put forward in the White Paper consultation Our National Mission: A Transformational Curriculum. Details of the legislative proposals relating to assessment are annexed to this document.

The core proposals are as follows.

  • Headteachers will have a duty to set achievement outcomes for each progression step and must have regard to Welsh Ministers’ guidance in doing so. The draft guidance for this is set out in the six areas of learning and experience guidance published at the same time as this document.
  • Assessment arrangements will be set out in subordinate legislation and the proposed functions to be given to funded non-maintained settings, schools and local authorities are set out in the annex. Regard must be given to Welsh Ministers’ guidance in exercising those functions. The guidance should be followed unless there are good reasons not to.

This document sets out the type of things we think should be contained in the assessment guidance. It outlines proposals to support funded non-maintained settings and schools to develop and deliver assessment under the new arrangements. The proposals outlined here, along with your feedback, will form the basis of statutory guidance which settings and schools will have to have regard to when planning and undertaking assessment in Curriculum for Wales 2022. This guidance will be published in January 2020.

Assessment is key to supporting progression, for the purpose of identifying learners’ strengths, achievements and areas for improvement, and identifying next steps. It is integral to learning and teaching, and should not be confused with those activities that contribute to external accountability and national monitoring. In the context of Curriculum for Wales 2022, the following will apply.

  • It is proposed that the Curriculum and Assessment Bill will contain provisions that will enable formative assessment to take place. Statutory guidance will seek to explain the place of formative assessment. It will recommend to settings and schools that assessment for formative purposes should be given priority over summative assessment under the new arrangements. This means that the focus of assessment should be on discerning learner progress, and informing next steps in learning and teaching.
  • We will be moving away from phases and stages to a continuum of learning that flows from the ages of 3 to 16. Practitioners will be assessing learner progress along the same continuum, thus minimising the impact of transition between and within settings and schools.
  • Progress will be signalled through progression steps which act as reference points on the continuum, relating broadly to expectations at ages 5, 8, 11, 14 and 16. These progression steps are articulated through a series of achievement outcomes which provide broad expectations of learning over three-year periods. We will, therefore, be moving away from our current system where judgements are made on the overall attainment of a learner in a subject at a specific point in time through the allocation of a level on a ‘best-fit’ basis. Achievement outcomes should not be used in a similar best-fit model at a set age or point in time to produce a summative assessment of a learner. Instead, they should be used as the basis for building an accurate picture of how a learner is progressing along the continuum, in the context of the four purposes of the curriculum.
  • In this document, we propose that a broader approach to moderation will be introduced. This will support professional dialogue regarding the nature of progression, the selection of appropriate learning and assessment activities, as well as ensuring a shared understanding of what achievement looks like in the context of the achievement outcomes.

The Welsh Government is already taking steps to separate assessment for learning purposes from accountability at a national level. Teacher assessment data and National Reading and Numeracy Test data at a school, local authority and regional consortia level will no longer be published. This applies to the Foundation Phase, Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 in all maintained primary and secondary schools. As we move towards Curriculum for Wales 2022, these changes will help shift the focus back to using teacher assessment as a means to inform better learning and teaching.

Please be aware that this document does not cover assessment arrangements in the context of external qualifications taken by 14 to 16-year-olds. However, we are working closely with Qualifications Wales, the independent regulator in Wales, to ensure alignment between Curriculum for Wales 2022 and future qualifications. Following publication of the draft Curriculum for Wales 2022 guidance, Qualifications Wales will be undertaking a rolling programme of activities and events that will provide opportunities for practitioners and other stakeholders to engage in the development process for the qualifications offer.

In Wales, our vision for what it is to be an educated citizen is described through the four purposes of the curriculum, to help all children and young people to develop as:

  • ambitious, capable learners, ready to learn throughout their lives
  • enterprising, creative contributors, ready to play a full part in life and work
  • ethical, informed citizens of Wales and the world
  • healthy, confident individuals, ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

Our key principles

Curriculum for Wales 2022 comprises six areas of learning and experience.

Statutory guidance for each of these six areas of learning and experience has been developed to support and enable learners to realise the four purposes of the curriculum. The cross-curricular responsibilities of literacy, numeracy and digital competence are also embedded across all of the areas of learning and experience.

All learners will progress along the same continuum of learning for each area of learning and experience, from age 3 to 16 years; however, the pace at which learners progress will differ. We recognise that learning should be seen as similar to an expedition – with stops, detours and spurts.

Within each area of learning and experience guidance, learning is organised by what matters statements – these articulate fundamental aspects of learning which, together, express what matters in an area of learning and experience.

Progression is signalled through progression steps which act as five reference points on the continuum. These progression steps as reference points are articulated through a series of achievement outcomes for each what matters statement. The achievement outcomes are described from a learner’s perspective, using the terms ‘I can … ’ and ‘I have … ’. They outline expectations broadly relating to ages 5, 8, 11, 14 and 16. Learners will progress along the continuum of learning at an appropriate pace for them and will achieve the achievement outcomes set out at the five progression steps when they demonstrate secure learning in those outcomes.

The achievement outcomes articulated for each progression step should be used on an ongoing basis to support practitioners to know whether a learner is ‘on track’ with their learning progression. This will help them plan appropriately, agree next steps for each individual learner, seek additional support if needed, and report back to parents/carers. No matter a learner’s age, the focus will be on ensuring that each individual securely reaches the achievement outcomes at a progression step before proceeding to work towards the next. For instance, a learner may be working towards achievement outcomes relating to specific aspects of learning at one progression step but working towards achievement outcomes relating to other aspects of learning at a different progression step.

The aim is to provide a clear picture of the learner’s achievements which will help determine next steps – and not make ‘best-fit’ judgements based on the achievement outcomes for each progression step.

The purpose of assessment is to support progression for each and every learner along the continuum of learning and towards the four purposes of the curriculum.

Assessment is how we recognise and support progress in learning for all of our learners, to know how well they are learning, what they understand and are able to do, any misconceptions, and to develop an understanding of learners’ individual needs in order to identify the most appropriate next steps for them to move their learning forward. Key to this is assessing what is important to support learner progression, and the intended outcomes of the learning and the teaching process.

Curriculum, pedagogy and assessment must support each other to ensure that every learner in Wales has the opportunity to realise our vision for the four purposes of the curriculum.

Key considerations

  • Assessment is an integral part of learning and teaching and should be undertaken with and by all learners from ages 3 to 16.
  • Appropriate pedagogical approaches should be identified, planned and used to enable learners to demonstrate their learning and their development fully.
  • Assessment should provide relevant and proportionate information about progress and success in relation to all the intended learning. It should be proportionate to its benefits.

Priority should be given to formative uses of assessment in order to support learning and teaching.

The information gained from a learning activity can be used for both formative and summative purposes, with the common goal being to support learning progression for all learners.

Assessment for formative purposes is mainly undertaken with learners during the learning process to explore how they are progressing and to identify achievements, as well as to identify areas where their learning may need to develop further. This information is then used by learners and practitioners to determine the next steps needed to improve their learning further and to inform practitioner planning.

From time to time, practitioners may also wish to sum up a learner’s achievements, giving them insights into what they have learned, focusing on the cumulative nature of their progress at the end of a period of instruction, exploration or project. Although the purpose of such assessment activities is primarily summative, they should also have a formative purpose. This will enable practitioners to provide feedback on where learners have made progress along the continuum, and what the next steps might be in their learning journey.

Key considerations

  • Assessment should inform a holistic view of a learner’s development and learning progression.
  • Practitioners can and should use assessment information to consider the progress of both individuals and specific groups, in order to plan appropriately and respond appropriately to findings, e.g. through the provision of appropriate intervention strategies. Information on the evidence required when deciding whether a learner has additional learning needs (ALN) can be found in the draft Additional Learning Needs (ALN) Code. The consultation on the Code closed on 22 March 2019.
  • Practitioners can and should use assessment information to reflect and evaluate, in order to adapt their practices to ensure they meet learners’ needs effectively, keeping what works best, and improving or changing the direction of what is not working well.

A wide range of assessment techniques should be used to provide a picture of a learner’s progress across the breadth of the curriculum.

Assessment should be based upon the intentions set out in the achievement outcomes at each progression step for each area of learning and experience. Progression steps as reference points are to be used to plan learning and teaching, and planning should recognise that there are a number of different pathways for learners’ journeys, with the progression steps providing a common routemap.

As outlined in the section ‘Context: Progression and Curriculum for Wales 2022’, achievement outcomes articulated at each progression step are not to be used to make a best-fit judgement at a set age or point in time to produce a formal summative assessment of a learner. Instead they should be used as the basis for ongoing assessment – building an accurate picture of how a learner is progressing, in relation to the various knowledge, skills and competencies across the curriculum. This will provide direction for practitioners and learners on where they are making progress, where support is required to make further progress, and what they should do next. The focus should always be on moving learning forward and ensuring that each learner is supported and challenged appropriately, according to their individual needs.

Assessment should be used to identify those who could progress to more advanced activities, and those who require further consolidation in relation to the relevant achievement outcomes. Deep learning is evidenced when the learning descriptions in the achievement outcomes have been met securely. This deep, or secure, learning brings together a breadth of knowledge and skills which learners can use and apply in new and challenging contexts. Teacher assessment is key to supporting this as it can cover the full breadth of intended learning. In relation to the early years of education, as part of day-to-day activities, practitioners will look for evidence of ‘embedded learning’. This is to assess what a learner can do consistently and independently, in a range of everyday situations.

When assessing learner progress a range of assessment methods should be used, some of which may be distinctive to individual areas of learning and experience, others which may support learner progression across more than one area of learning and experience.

Baseline assessment

To support and enable practitioners to plan appropriately to meet the needs of each individual, it is proposed that a baseline assessment will be carried out for each learner within the first six weeks of them entering the Reception year.

Currently, baseline assessments are completed using the Foundation Phase Profile. Although in Curriculum for Wales 2022 the concept of ‘phases’ and ‘stages’ in education will no longer be applicable, there will still be a clear need for an on-entry assessment, to enable practitioners to provide a developmentally appropriate curriculum from which all learners can benefit, and which is aligned to their needs. The Welsh Government will be working with partners during 2019 to review the current Foundation Phase Profile, and to consider how we can build on the tool to seamlessly align assessment arrangements in the early years with Curriculum for Wales 2022.

Online personalised assessment

One assessment method is the use of online personalised assessments for learners in Years 2 to 9 to enable practitioners to understand how a learner’s reading and numeracy skills are developing. Learners in Years 2 to 9 studying in maintained schools in Wales are required to take the online personalised assessments for Numeracy (Procedural and Reasoning) and Reading (English and Welsh) once a year. These assessments have been developed with Curriculum for Wales 2022 in mind. The purpose of these assessments is solely formative and they have not been designed to be used as an accountability measure. The outcomes of each assessment provide a range of information on skills, which can be used to inform learning and teaching in order to move learners forward. A suite of resources on personalised assessments is available to help support practitioners and can be accessed online at

Routes for Learning

Practitioners can draw on Routes for Learning to assess learners with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). The Routes for Learning materials focus on early communication and cognitive skills.

Key considerations

  • Assessment techniques, selected on ‘fit-for-purpose’ criteria, should assess what is important, with clarity about what is being assessed and for what purpose.
  • When planning assessment a balance should be struck between the more day-to-day, ongoing forms of assessment and periodic summative assessment activities.
  • Assessment by practitioners should remain the main vehicle for assessment before qualifications, as it can cover the full breadth of intended learning and can take place on a regular or continuous basis.
  • Early on in the continuum, assessment should be based on the practitioner’s knowledge of the learner, gained predominantly from observation and interaction in a range of daily activities, conversations, learning opportunities, playful interactions and events.
  • Input from parents/carers and other relevant adults, as well as the learner, can be useful in planning for assessment.
  • Settings and schools should use their judgement to decide which aspects of learning should be assessed, how much assessment information is sufficient to gauge progress in learning, what needs to be recorded, and in what level of detail.
  • Success criteria used within assessment should be well-defined, appropriate for the task and achievable, yet challenging, for all learners involved in the activity. Success criteria refers to criteria set in relation to a specific learning activity so that learners are clear what’s expected of them and what ‘success’ might look like. These criteria should be understood by all learners, in order for them to understand what they can do, what they need to do to further develop and how they can achieve this.
  • Over time learners should be supported to develop their own success criteria, where appropriate, which can engage them further in the task, and help yield better outcomes.
  • A broad and balanced curriculum should be maintained throughout the academic year, incorporating the online personalised assessments at points that fit the natural rhythm of learning and teaching.
  • Settings and schools should establish clear policies and procedures around effective assessment, supporting the progression of each learner.

Practitioners should work together to develop an informed, dependable, accurate and consistent understanding of learner progression in order to inform learning and teaching.

Moderation is the process whereby practitioners within and across settings and schools share, reflect on and discuss their practice in, and understanding of, assessment. This will include learning intentions, development of success criteria, and examples of learners’ work and assessment information.

The process should allow practitioners to consider their understanding of what progression is and what it looks like, the learning and assessment activities which a setting or school undertakes, and whether the learning and assessment arrangements are delivering the expected outcomes. Moderation often takes place informally, but practitioners will also continue to participate in formal, planned moderation activities.

Moderation provides opportunities for professional dialogue between practitioners to ensure understanding of progression and that the appropriate methods are selected from a range of techniques to assess what is intended to be learned. The moderation process, therefore, is not just important within a setting or school and within individual year groups, but also across different settings and schools. This is particularly key in relation to transition within and between settings and schools.

Developing shared broad expectations in relation to the achievement outcomes articulated for the progression steps on the continuum of learning is a key part of the process. Practitioners working together to agree and exemplify the standards, and then to moderate assessments against these expectations, will help to ensure that assessment is consistent and based on a common understanding of learner progress. A focus on what achievement looks like, making use of evidence of learning, discussion with learners, and completed work will support the process of reaching agreement on how attaining the achievement outcomes can be evidenced in different ways.

Key considerations

  • Moderation should make use of a broad range of assessment information (which includes the learning and assessment activities undertaken), e.g. written work, practical work, videos and practitioner observations. This should not be produced specifically for moderation purposes, but should be built up over time.
  • Moderation should be undertaken within settings and schools, and between settings and schools.
  • Settings and schools should develop policies and procedures to support effective moderation.

Learners should be active participants in the learning and assessment process, taking ownership of their own learning.

Peer assessment, self-assessment and the use of e-Portfolios are ways in which learners can be encouraged to take greater responsibility for their own learning.

Enabling active learners through peer assessment and self-assessment

Using assessment information learners can understand their strengths, their areas for development and help plan the next steps in their learning. When used critically, both peer assessment and self-assessment provide opportunities for learners to engage actively in the assessment process, complementing practitioner feedback, while also providing valuable information for practitioners on how to adapt their teaching.

Peer assessment is about establishing a dialogue between learners around the evaluation of progress. When based on a good comprehension of success criteria and progression, this can expose them to a broader range of ideas and help them to consider new ways of thinking about their own work. It promotes interdependent learning, encouraging learners to highlight strengths and areas for development, to identify next steps and to make these clear to their peers through constructive feedback. It can also help to develop a positive and reflective attitude towards giving and receiving feedback for learning. In order to achieve this it is important that settings and schools establish a strong learning culture and an environment of mutual trust and respect. From an early age, learners should be encouraged to develop the skills they need to carry out peer assessment effectively.

Self-assessment is about learners being able to evaluate their own progress based on clearly understood success criteria and to participate in dialogue about their progress and next steps. It promotes independent learning and thinking, helping learners to gain increased independence in identifying their own next steps and to take greater responsibility for their own progress. By encouraging self-assessment, learners will develop the ability to think critically about their own learning.

Key considerations

  • Settings and schools should establish a culture whereby learners are able to:
    • evaluate their own progress and the progress of others
    • use clear and focused success criteria to reflect on feedback
    • participate in discussions with peers and practitioners regarding achievements and next steps.
  • Practitioners should support learners to assess their own work and the work of others, and should model how to give clear, specific, constructive feedback related to the success criteria.
  • To enable learners to contribute to discussions about their own progression, they should understand how specific assessment opportunities relate to their journey on the continuum of learning, in relation to each area of learning and experience.
  • Over time, learners should develop the capacity to:
    • objectively reflect on and critically evaluate their own and others’ progress
    • identify gaps in their understanding and capabilities
    • discern how to improve their performance, challenging themselves to reach their next steps
    • develop their own success criteria
    • learn independently and think critically.

Enabling active learners through e-Portfolios

Being able to recognise what matters in their learning journeys and having opportunities to exemplify what’s important to their own progression contributes to developing independent and lifelong learners. Ownership of their own learning allows learners to value what’s important to them both within and outside the classroom.

An e-Portfolio is a digital record, the content of which reflects the experiences, achievements and learning journey of an individual learner. It supports learners to gather and capture examples of their progression and notable achievements, both within and beyond the classroom, reflecting on what matters to them within the context of the four purposes of the curriculum.

The Welsh Government is establishing an e-Portfolio system which will be available for use by all schools in Wales. We are currently working with stakeholders to clarify how e-Portfolios will be implemented, including the role of both learners and practitioners within the classroom and who will have access to an individual learner’s e-Portfolio. Further details will be provided during 2019. All learners from Reception year onwards should have access to a suitable e-Portfolio system.

Key considerations

  • Learners should begin creating their e-Portfolio from the point at which this will support their learning and progression.
  • Learners should be encouraged to capture key achievements and experiences within their e-Portfolio, including those that go beyond the classroom.

Information on a learner’s progress and achievements should be shared effectively to engage the learner, their parents/carers and other practitioners in identifying and supporting their next steps.

Sharing information on learning with parents/carers

Sharing information, or reporting, is the process through which parents/carers, as well as learners, can be informed about progress and be provided with an insight into the holistic development of the learner. This can include formal reports, produced according to a planned timetable, discussions at parent/carer evenings, correspondence home and invitations to additional discussions. The requirement for headteachers to provide parents/carers with a formal report at least once a year will continue. Use of a range of means should ensure that information is shared with parents/carers at such times, and in such a way as to ensure that any intervention is effective.

Used well, reporting provides reassurance and initiates purposeful, meaningful dialogue about ways in which further learning can be supported. This can help engage parents/carers, establishing effective working relationships, whereby parents/carers can support learning outside of the setting or school environment. Reporting should also provide information on any support, interventions or additional needs required for the learner’s development.

Ideally, learners should contribute to reporting by gathering and selecting evidence, articulating their own progress and achievements, conveying their aspirations and views on the next steps in their learning, and participating in practitioner and parent/carer dialogue. Information contained within a learner’s e-Portfolio and outputs from self-assessment activities can also provide useful sources of information.

Parents/carers should also be provided with the opportunity to provide input to the reporting process in order to help capture a full picture of a learner’s achievements, both inside and outside of the setting or school.

For learners with individual development plans (IDPs), these documents are an essential element of the reporting process.

Key considerations

  • Reporting should focus on progress and contain information on the learner’s next steps.
  • All reporting should be timely, open, honest and fair, to ensure that there are no ‘surprises’ for parents/carers or learners themselves regarding their attainment.
  • Reporting should make use of the assessment information and knowledge gathered on a learner over a period of time. This should include experiences beyond the classroom in order to provide a more cumulative, deeper assessment of a learner’s progress.
  • Progression steps should not be used as a numerical way of measuring progress. Instead, reporting should be based on a narrative which gives a well-rounded account of the learner, drawing on the language of the achievement outcomes, where appropriate.
  • Reporting should be an ongoing process which makes use of a variety of communication means. A formal report will be provided to the parents/carers of every learner at a maintained school at least once in the academic year.
  • Where possible, both learners and parents/carers should contribute to the reporting process.
  • Settings and schools should develop and publish clear policies around parent/carer reporting, which should specify the nature and frequency of reporting to be undertaken.

Sharing information on learning to support transition

Effective transition is about promoting a smooth movement of learners through the learning continuum from class to class and year to year, as well as at other transition points, such as between nursery and primary schools and primary and secondary schools. This helps support both continuity and progression in learning, while also facilitating the well-being of learners.

The use of assessment information is an important element of the transition process. A broad range of assessment information on the learner should be shared as part of transition. Using assessment information to inform effective communication about the learner’s progression between practitioners, parents/carers and learners themselves is integral to ensuring successful transition.

Learner reviews which reflect the successes and challenges of learners, as well as input from parents/carers, can also support the transition process.

Key considerations

  • The learner should be at the centre of the transition process, using and passing on rounded assessment information effectively, to build on strengths and identify areas of development. This should show a learner’s individual progression across the curriculum, drawing on all six areas of learning and experience.
  • Information and knowledge shared for transition should cover the learner’s welfare, health and well-being, behaviour, and history of support.
  • Settings and schools should develop policies and procedures to support effective transition across the learning continuum.
  • Secondary schools and their partner primary/junior schools will jointly draw up transition plans to support all learners moving from primary/junior to secondary school.
  • Transition plans should set out how schools will work together to support progression in learning, with a focus on effective communication between practitioners, including face-to-face interactions. The Additional Learning Needs (ALN) Code provides information on transition planning. In addition, the individual development plans (IDP) contain a section on transition specific to learners with ALN. 
  • Transition plans should consider those learners moving between funded non-maintained settings and primary school and infant and junior school, where these are separate school settings. Planning should be considered for the transition of learners to and from non‑maintained settings, pupil referral units (PRUs) and further education colleges.

In January 2019, the Welsh Government published legislative proposals to support the new curriculum and assessment arrangements in the White Paper consultation Our National Mission: A Transformational Curriculum. The consultation closed on 25 March 2019 and we are currently considering the responses.

This annex outlines the legislative proposals relevant to the new assessment arrangements. When published, the assessment guidance will reflect not only the feedback received on the proposals outlined in this document, but the latest position on the legislative proposals outlined below. Subject to the legislation being made, the relevant requirements will be set out within the assessment guidance.

The following is proposed.

  • There will be a power in the Curriculum and Assessment Bill to set out in secondary legislation the assessment arrangements for Curriculum for Wales 2022. That legislation will be supplemented by statutory guidance, which funded non-maintained settings, schools and local authorities will have to have regard to when designing and delivering assessment. The assessment guidance will be published in January 2020.
  • We anticipate that secondary legislation will set out the following.
    • Schools to be required to take part in group moderation in accordance with secondary legislation. It is anticipated that provision will be along the lines of that currently in the National Curriculum (Moderation of Assessment Arrangements for the Second and Third Key Stages) (Wales) Order 2015 (2015/1309 (W.113)).
    • It is proposed that headteachers must provide a formal report to be shared with parents/carers at least once a year. We therefore intend to retain the provision under section 408 of the Education Act 1996 to enable the Welsh Ministers to make Regulations for reporting to parents/carers. The detail is currently set out in the Head Teacher’s Report to Parents and Adult Pupils (Wales) Regulations 2011 (2011/1943 (W.210)) but it is anticipated that the detail would need to change substantially to reflect the new curriculum and assessment arrangements.
    • Secondary schools and their feeder primary schools to jointly draw up transition plans to facilitate the transition from primary school to secondary school of learners at those primary schools who are admitted to the secondary school. Therefore, section 198 of the Education Act 2002, which allows the Welsh Ministers to make Regulations setting out how the detail of how that will work, will be retained. It is anticipated that provision will be along the lines of that currently in the Transition from Primary to Secondary School (Wales) Regulations 2006 (S.I. 2006/520 (W.64)).
    • Schools to be required to carry out a baseline assessment to understand where learners are on entry to statutory schooling in accordance with secondary legislation. The detail is currently set out in the National Curriculum (Desirable Outcomes, Educational Programmes and Baseline and End of Phase Assessment Arrangements for the Foundation Phase) (Wales) Order 2015 (2015/1596 (W.195)) but it is anticipated that the detail would need to change substantially to reflect the new curriculum and assessment arrangements.
    • Schools to be required to administer national tests in accordance with secondary legislation. It is anticipated that provision will be along the lines of that currently in the Education (National Curriculum) (Assessment Arrangements for Reading and Numeracy) (Wales) Order 2013 (2013/433 (W.51)).