Cymraeg

Hwb

What Matters in Humanities

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  • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

    Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Achievement outcomes

      I can ask simple questions and offer possible answers based on previous experiences.

      I can begin to record my observations in simple ways and communicate my findings.

      I have shown curiosity about the world around me.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can ask and respond to a range of questions as part of enquiries.

      I can make suggestions for possible enquiries.

      I can make and record my observations in a variety of ways.

      I can collect and record information and data from given sources in order to answer specific questions.

      I can sort and group evidence, using more than one criterion relating to an enquiry.

      I can give simple explanations for my findings.

      I can draw simple conclusions.

      I have had opportunities to participate in enquiries, focusing on my locality, Wales and the wider world.

      I have used a range of stimuli and evidence, including visual, physical and oral sources, that have been provided for me.

      I have had a range of opportunities to collaborate with others to explore and engage in primary research, including fieldwork and visits, and to investigate local environments or issues.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use my experiences and knowledge to frame appropriate enquiries.

      I can generate ideas, make predictions, and plan several different ways to approach a given situation or task, as well as experiment with a range of options when putting these ideas into action.

      I can explore the differences between facts, opinions and beliefs.

      I can find and collect a range of evidence to support my enquiry with some independence.

      I can present my findings in a range of ways, using appropriate methods.

      I can evaluate the significance and usefulness of the evidence I am exploring.

      I can interpret data and information and use this to inform my conclusions, giving reasons.

      I can draw and present conclusions for my findings, and can describe an evidence-supported decision or conclusion based on the enquiry process I have undertaken.

      I can evaluate and reflect on my enquiry, describing the steps I have taken, and identify areas for improvement.

      I have actively engaged in enquires, both independently and collaboratively.

      I have undertaken enquiries focusing on interdisciplinary themes.

      I have experienced enquiries focusing on my locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      I have experienced enquiries focusing on my own beliefs, values and world views, and those of others.

      I have used a range of sources and evidence, including written, visual, physical and oral sources that have been gained from my research.

      I have experienced opportunities for undertaking primary research in my local area and beyond.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can formulate and respond to open-ended and complex questions.

      I can consider a range of known strategies to conduct an enquiry and independently select the most effective approach.

      I can independently identify and select a variety of relevant evidence, and I can infer meaning to draw reasoned conclusions.

      I can select the appropriate research methods.

      I can gather a variety of relevant evidence, including quantitative and qualitative data.

      I can present my findings and data, utilising a range of increasingly sophisticated methods.

      I can analyse my findings, describing patterns and explaining relationships across data sets.

      I can describe the decision or conclusion I have come to.

      I can understand that others can draw different conclusions even when using the same evidence.

      I can evaluate the usefulness and analyse the reliability of evidence.

      I can reference the sources I have used to reach my conclusions.

      I can effectively evaluate the success of the enquiry process used, and suggest some improvements.

      I can understand that each of the above are required elements of a process of enquiry, which can be applied to a variety of Humanities questions.

      I can identify and explain some differences between the process of enquiry in the different Humanities disciplines.

      I have undertaken independent and collaborative enquiries in Humanities.

      I have had the opportunity for reflection on how my enquiry may add meaning to my own life and may contribute to my sense of place in the world.

      I have undertaken enquiries focusing on questions relating to specific Humanities subject areas, as well as interdisciplinary themes and questions.

      I have developed and led my own enquiries focusing on my locality, Wales, and the wider world, now and in the past.

      I have developed and led my own enquiries focusing on my own beliefs, values and world views, and those of others.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can independently formulate and respond to complex open-ended questions.

      I can independently select the appropriate research methods and types of evidence, depending on the disciplinary context of the enquiry.

      I can gather a variety of relevant evidence, including quantitative and qualitative data.

      I can independently select the appropriate method of presenting my findings and conclusions, and I can reference my work appropriately.

      I can communicate the results of my enquiry using a variety of methods appropriate to the subject matter, purpose and audience.

      I can interpret evidence, infer meaning and draw conclusions, synthesising a range of evidence.

      I can evaluate the usefulness and reliability of qualitative and quantitative evidence, considering its content, provenance, purpose, context and limitations.

      I can understand the impact of sources of authority and analyse how they are interpreted and used.

      I can make coherent, substantiated responses and judgements that are balanced and take into consideration a range of viewpoints.

      I can independently evaluate the success of my enquiries, suggest improvements and refine my methodology for future enquires.

      I can make considered reflections for further research or extension of the enquiry.

      I can explain the similarities and differences between enquiries in the subject areas within Humanities.

      I have taken a leading role in developing enquiries focusing on my locality, Wales, and the wider world in one or more of the disciplines in Humanities.

      I have utilised a range of sources, including those from my own research, to add depth to my enquiries.

      I have had the opportunity for self-reflection, considering how my enquiry might add meaning to my own life and might contribute to my sense of place in the world.

      When learners are engaged in discipline-specific enquiries, the following should be added to Progression step 5.

      Geography

      I can predict possible outcomes to geographical research.

      I can collect relevant quantitative and qualitative primary and secondary data accurately.

      I can interpret and present data in a graphical or cartographical form.

      I can draw conclusions from geographical data using statistical skills where appropriate.

      History

      I can understand the subjective and incomplete nature of historical evidence.

      I can analyse and evaluate the reliability, utility and validity of primary and secondary historical evidence in context of the specific enquiry.

      I can fully justify and support my conclusions, while acknowledging the limitations of judgements about the past based on the available evidence.

      Religious education

      I can engage in philosophical enquiry considering the diversity, complexity and plurality of religious and non‑religious world views.

      I can understand that Ultimate questions are complex, and answers are often partial and inconclusive.

      I can appreciate, empathise with and critically evaluate sources of wisdom and authority, and religious and non‑religious world views, in order to form my own reasoned conclusions.

      I can observe and investigate forms of religious expression, and can critically evaluate how aspects of religion and belief impact upon me, other individuals, local society and global society.

      Business studies and social studies

      I can plan and follow appropriate social studies or business studies methodologies, using primary and secondary social research methods when appropriate.

      I can collect, collate and analyse primary data using appropriate sampling techniques.

      I have considered and acted upon my ethical responsibilities as a social studies and business studies researcher.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning. Developing an enquiring mind and experiencing enquiries allows learners to investigate and consider all aspects of Humanities.

      Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

      • Enquiries with a focus on exploring different interpretations.
      • Secondary evidence used in enquiries can illustrate varied viewpoints, interpretations and representations.

      Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

      • Enquiries with a focus on human relationships and impact upon the natural world.

      Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

      • Enquiries with a focus on how societies are diverse and plural.
      • Enquiries with a focus on change and continuity.

      Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

      • Through enquiry, learners develop their understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • Art, music, theatre, literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

      Health and Well-being

      • Using Humanities methodology to consider aspects of health and well-being such as mental, physical and emotional health.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • Literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • Use of qualitative data as evidence for enquiries.
      • Collection of primary data.
      • Sampling methods and statistical techniques of analysing data.
      • Representation of data in graphical form.
      • Interpreting a range of graphs.
      • Sorting and classifying.
      • Spotting trends and anomalies.

      Science and Technology

      • The nature of enquiry as it relates to Science and Technology.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of ongoing opportunities for exploration and discovery through play
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore, observe and question
      • make and record observations and findings, using digital and other methods.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of ongoing opportunities for exploration and discovery through play
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore, observe and question
      • gather, sort and group different types of evidence
      • make and record observations and findings, using digital and other methods
      • draw and explain a simple conclusion
      • undertake enquires relating to a range of interdisciplinary themes
      • explore philosophical questions about life.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      Learners need to know:

      • the methodology used in Humanities enquiries and how this may differ between disciplines
      • the difference between facts, opinion, beliefs and how this contributes to the relevance and use of evidence.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • undertake enquiries relating to both interdisciplinary and disciplinary themes
      • select enquiry methods appropriate to the specific enquiry
      • observe and use prior knowledge to formulate appropriate questions
      • gather evidence from a range of sources
      • interpret findings in order to draw a conclusion or make a judgement
      • identify the relevance of the information collected
      • arrange and present findings appropriately, using digital techniques when appropriate
      • reflect on enquiries, ask questions about the learning process, and also look forward to where an enquiry is leading next
      • reflect on and evaluate the application of digital tools in enquiries.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present
      • opportunities for self-reflection as they consider how their enquiry may add meaning to their life and may contribute to their sense of their place in the world.

      Learners need to know:

      • appropriate methodologies for the collection of data and evidence
      • the similarities and differences between enquiry methods in each subject area.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • undertake enquiries that are focused on interdisciplinary as well as subject-focused questions and issues
      • observe and use prior knowledge to ask and frame appropriate questions
      • gather evidence from a range of sources gained from outdoor learning, and primary and secondary research
      • identify the relevance of the information collected to the specific context of the enquiry
      • use various methods to present evidence from enquiries, including using digital techniques where appropriate
      • interpret, critically analyse and evaluate a wide range of written, visual, physical and oral evidence, including factual, philosophical and interpretative evidence
      • interpret findings in order to draw, present and justify substantiated conclusions
      • reflect on and evaluate the effectiveness of enquiries
      • reflect on and evaluate the application of digital tools in enquiries.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present
      • opportunities for self-reflection as they consider how their enquiry may add meaning to their life and may contribute to their sense of their place in the world.

      Learners need to know:

      • appropriate methodologies for the collection of data and evidence
      • the similarities and differences between enquiry methods in each subject area.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • undertake enquiries that are focused on interdisciplinary as well as subject-focused questions and issues
      • observe and use prior knowledge to ask and frame appropriate questions
      • gather evidence from a range of sources gained from outdoor learning, and primary and secondary research
      • identify the relevance of the information collected to the specific context of the enquiry
      • use various methods to present evidence from enquiries, including using digital techniques where appropriate
      • interpret, critically analyse and evaluate a wide range of written, visual, physical and oral evidence, including factual, philosophical and interpretative evidence
      • interpret findings in order to draw, present and justify substantiated conclusions
      • reflect on and evaluate the effectiveness of enquiries
      • reflect on and evaluate the application of digital tools in enquiries.

      In addition to the above at Progression step 5, in their discipline-specific enquiries learners should have opportunities to undertake the following.

      Geography
      • Enquiries linked to environmental and geographic events and themes, which includes fieldwork and learning outside the classroom, use of geographical information systems, gathering quantitative and qualitative data, and statistical analysis of numerical data.
      History
      • Historical enquiries that would include developing an understanding of the use and value of written, visual, and physical evidence (including first-hand or primary evidence, as well as secondary sources) to explain how and why historical interpretations are formed.
      Religious education
      • Enquiries exploring complex philosophical questions about the meaning and purpose of life. This includes engaging with Ultimate questions raised by the world around them, their own life experiences and aspects of religion, as well as using sources of wisdom and philosophy.
      Business studies and social studies
      • Enquiries linked to business and economic themes, using forms of media, data, case studies and market research.
      • Enquires exploring contemporary and controversial social issues, people’s views and perspectives on social issues, and the ways that people participate in society and social action.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

    Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Achievement outcomes

      I can communicate my ideas about my own experiences.

      I can recognise that my feelings, actions and opinions can be different from those of others.

      I can understand personal events in the past, present and future are significant to me.

      I can form and express my opinion about familiar issues and recognise that my opinion has value to me.

      I have had opportunities to discuss my opinions about things I have experienced with other people.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise other people’s viewpoints about familiar events or experiences.

      I can recognise that not everything will stay the same and that time can cause opinions to change.

      I can understand that other people explain things in different ways, and I can consider the merits of these different viewpoints and explanations.

      I can describe my feelings, actions and opinions, and explain how they are different from those of others.

      I can form an opinion about something that is important to me, considering my own ideas and those of others.

      I have had opportunities to discuss my opinions and ideas with other people.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can give evidence for an argument or viewpoint and present counterarguments.

      I have been able to infer people’s opinions, viewpoints and interpretations from sources and evidence.

      I can recognise that people have different opinions about the significance of people, events and experiences in the past and present.

      I can recognise, accept and understand that people have different opinions and viewpoints about an issue, and am able to compare different interpretations of the same issue.

      I can recount the evidence people use to interpret events and issues in different ways.

      I have been able to form, express and discuss my own opinion on issues, after considering some evidence and the views of others.

      I have discussed my own and others’ responses to questions about life, experiences and the world, including consideration of Ultimate questions, and I have discussed these issues with people who do not always have the same opinion as I have.

      I understand that people’s views and opinions may change over time.

      I can explain how some aspects of the past have been represented and interpreted in different ways.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can explain reasons people may have or may use to explain events and issues in different ways.

      I can understand that interpretations are influenced by a range of factors.

      I can explain some reasons why people have different opinions about the significance of people, events and experiences in the past and present, and can form my own opinions of their significance.

      I can infer and evaluate interpretations and viewpoints from a range of sources and evidence.

      I can draw on a range of interpretations to come to a reasoned personal perspective.

      I can express, justify and discuss my personal opinions in debates and in writing.

      I can appreciate that my interpretations are influenced by my identity, experiences and beliefs.

      I can understand that interpretations, including my own, can change over time, especially in the light of new evidence or when approached from a different perspective.

      I can see that some interpretations and opinions have greater validity than others.

      I can explain how interpretations can influence people’s actions, traditions and forms of expression.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can accept that questions about life, experiences and the world are complex and that responses are often partial and inconclusive, and I can discuss accordingly.

      I can analyse the impacts of different perspectives in response to questions about life, experiences and the world on my own life and on the lives of others.

      I can explain and analyse a range of reasons why people have different opinions about the significance of people, events and experiences in the past and present, and can form, defend and justify my own opinions of their significance.

      I can critically evaluate the validity of interpretations by considering how they are shaped and influenced by place and belief, and how they can change over time.

      I have investigated what influences and shapes my own interpretations, and I can explain how my views are influenced by social, cultural and historical contexts.

      I can appreciate the varied lenses through which one views the world and recognise the limitations of my own perspective.

      I have begun to challenge my own values and perspectives.

      I can evaluate the credibility and validity of a range of perspectives and use this evaluation to support the development of my own informed, justified and balanced judgements about life, events and experiences.

      I can integrate new or revised perspectives into my own thinking.

      I can infer subtle interpretations from sources and evidence.

      I have explored how people’s interpretations and views have led to certain actions.

      I have had opportunities to form, express and discuss personal opinions about a range of issues across the Humanities.

      I can form, justify, and support my own interpretations.

      I have had opportunities to discuss, analyse and evaluate the interpretations offered by others.

      I have explored the complexity of local, national and global issues, and engaged with multiple perspectives relating to these issues.

      I have used different perspectives to explore issues.

      I have had opportunities to engage in formal and informal debates on a range of current and controversial topics.

      When learners are engaged in discipline-specific enquiries, the following should be added to Progression step 5.

      Geography

      I can understand and describe how geographical interpretations are influenced by a range of factors.

      I can explain how interpretations of place, landscapes, environments and cultures may change over time.

      I can understand how people’s interpretations of place, landscapes, environments and cultures influence their actions.

      I can express and justify my viewpoints about a variety of places, landscapes, environments and cultures in Wales and the wider world, and understand that my views may change over time.

      History

      I can explain how and why interpretations of historical events have changed over time and explain why historians form different interpretations of events.

      I can form, express and support my own interpretations of historical events.

      I can understand how my own identity, experiences, opinions, and beliefs can affect my own interpretations and understanding of historical events.

      I can adapt or change my interpretations of historical events in the light of new evidence.

      Religious education

      I can critically evaluate specific aspects of religion and world views, considering the different interpretations of religious teachings and the impact of these upon me, other individuals, local and global society.

      I can analyse, interpret and evaluate layers of meaning in religious expression, e.g. symbolism, pilgrimage, rituals, rites of passage, ceremonies, literature, art, dance and music.

      I have been able to form, express and support my opinion on a range of Ultimate questions.

      I can express and justify my feelings with integrity and maturity, demonstrating clearly how what I have learned has impacted on my own beliefs and values.

      Business studies and social studies

      I can understand how political, economic and social ideologies influence my own and other people’s interpretations of the roles and functions of business in society.

      I can understand that there is a range of interpretations of social issues that inform how society is structured.

      I have engaged with diverse viewpoints and perspectives on social issues and used these insights to strengthen my own decisions and opinions.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

      • Understanding that interpretations and viewpoints can develop from specific enquiries.
      • Interpretations presented by specific sources and evidence.

      Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

      • Interpretations and viewpoints on the relationship between humans and the natural world, e.g. climate change.

      Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

      • Historical interpretations of people and events.
      • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
      • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

      Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

      • An individual’s viewpoint of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
      • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • Expressive arts act as mediums for the expression of interpretations and viewpoints.

      Health and Well-being

      • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.
      • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
      • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • Literature as a medium of expression for interpretations.
      • Identity and language.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • Interpreting data, i.e. economic trends.

      Science and Technology

      • Interpretations of scientific discoveries and their impact on the world.
      • Perceptions of the natural world.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that enthuse and inspire them to be curious about, engage with and explore their locality
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • what opinions are, and recognise that they and others have opinions.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • discuss and express their opinions about their experiences or issues that are familiar to them
      • recognise that their opinions, and the opinions of others, have value
      • use words, signs or symbols to communicate observations, thoughts and feelings.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in, and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • offer their own ideas and make connections
      • explore, find out about and discuss issues and events from within and across the Humanities disciplines
      • to form and express their own opinions on issues
      • communicate their observations, thoughts and feelings using words, signs or symbols
      • recognise that people have different opinions and viewpoints and that they may differ from their own.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in, and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • collaborative discussion on a wide range of varied viewpoints and interpretations, including opportunities for formal and informal debates
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • that people have different opinions and recount the evidence used for these opinions
      • how sources and evidence can provide interpretations
      • how sources and evidence are used to form and justify people’s interpretations.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore local, national and global issues, and engage with multiple perspectives relating to these issues
      • engage with a range of issues and compare different interpretations of the same event or issue, and consider how people differ in their views of significant people, events or changes
      • form, express and discuss opinions
      • engage with interpretations presented in sources, and use these interpretations to support their own interpretations
      • explore layers of meaning within symbolic representations.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in, and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • collaborative discussion on a wide range of varied viewpoints and interpretations, including opportunities for formal and informal debates
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • what makes an interpretation valid
      • how interpretations are shaped and formed
      • how selection of evidence influences interpretations and opinions.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore the complexity of local, national and global issues, and engage with multiple perspectives relating to these issues
      • explore different interpretations of people, societies, periods of time and events; the role of businesses; religious and non-religious world views, beliefs, values, sources and sacred texts; places, landscapes, cultures and environments
      • form, express and discuss personal opinions about a range of issues across the Humanities
      • draw on a range of interpretations and opinions to come to a reasoned personal perspective
      • use different perspectives to explore issues
      • engage with interpretations found within a range of sources and use these to support or contradict their own interpretations and responses
      • explore how people have differing interpretations relating to the significance of events, people, changes and experiences
      • explore layers of meaning within symbolic representations.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • collaborative discussion on a wide range of varied viewpoints and interpretations, including opportunities for formal and informal debates
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers, and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • the range of factors that contribute to the validity of interpretations
      • how interpretations are shaped and formed
      • how selection and judgements about the validity of evidence influences interpretations and opinions.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore the complexity of local, national and global issues and engage with multiple perspectives relating to these issues
      • explore a wide range of different interpretations of people, societies, periods of time, and events; role of businesses; religious and non-religious world views, beliefs, values, sources, sacred texts; places, landscapes, cultures and environments
      • investigate and understand what influences and shapes their own interpretations and opinions and be able to draw on a range of interpretations and opinions to come to a reasoned personal perspective
      • explore how and why interpretations are shaped and formed and how they can change over time
      • explore how and why people have differing interpretations relating to the significance of events, people, changes and experiences
      • evaluate the validity and credibility of interpretations through discussion of how interpretations are shaped and how they can change over time
      • explore how people’s interpretations and viewpoints have impacted upon their actions.
      • form, express and discuss personal opinions about a range of issues across the Humanities
      • discuss, analyse and evaluate the interpretations offered by others
      • use different perspectives to explore issues
      • explore multiple perspectives and alternative visions for the future
      • engage with interpretations found within a wide range of sources, and use these to support and defend their own interpretations and responses.

      When planning discipline-specific learning, the following should be added to the above at Progression step 5.

      Geography

      Learners need to know:

      • different interpretations of geographical themes
      • how interpretations may vary depending upon an individual’s culture, socioeconomic status, age, gender, education, travel experiences, etc.
      • how representations of place, cultures and environments change through time, e.g. in cultural geography, the representation of place, environments and cultures through music, literature, films, etc.
      • how people’s perceptions influence how they interact with places, environments and cultures
      • the significance of different viewpoints and perceptions in understanding change in physical and human environments at all scales from Wales to the wider world.
      History

      Learners need to know:

      • how people and past events in Wales and the wider world have been interpreted in different ways
      • how and why historians have come to their interpretations
      • how and why historians can form different interpretations of the same event or person
      • how different viewpoints and interpretations have impacted upon events in history.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • apply appropriate methods of evaluating the validity of historical interpretations.
      Religious education

      Learners need to know:

      • perceptions, interpretations and representations of religious and non-religious world views, beliefs and practices, symbolism, pilgrimage, rituals, rites of passage, ceremonies, literature, art, rituals, dance and music
      • about interpreting and evaluating texts, sources of wisdom and authority and other evidence.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • articulate clearly and coherently personal beliefs, ideas, values and experiences while respecting the right of others to differ.
      Business studies and social studies

      Learners need to know:

      • political, economic, business ideologies and perspectives
      • the contributions made by Welsh, the United Kingdom, European and global business individuals in the past and present
      • how the economic decisions of business and industries has impacted on experiences and perspectives
      • interpretations of social issues and social inequality
      • viewpoints and interpretations of society through the ‘lenses’ of identity, multiculturalism, gender and sexuality.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

    Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

    Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise where places are and how they are distinct from and similar to each other.

      I can communicate my feelings about the natural world.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can describe the distinct physical features of places, environments and landscapes in Wales and the wider world.

      I can recognise some religious and non-religious beliefs about the natural world and how this could influence the way people interact with the world.

      I can identify some significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can describe how people’s actions and the natural world impact upon each other, both in the past and present.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can describe and locate places, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, using map skills where appropriate.

      I can describe patterns of distribution of features in the natural world and begin to give reasons for these patterns.

      I can show understanding of the causes and effects of the events and physical processes that shape places, environments, landscapes and people.

      I can describe how human actions have led to both continuity and change in the natural world in different periods of history.

      I can describe how physical processes have impacted upon human societies in history and how they have led to change and continuity.

      I can show understanding of the concept of sustainability.

      I can describe a range of religious and non-religious world views about the natural world.

      I can describe some religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can describe how beliefs can impact on human action on the natural world.

      I can communicate my views and feelings about the natural world and the part I play in it.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can explain the complex features of places, environments and landscapes at a variety of scales, using map skills where appropriate.

      I can describe the distribution and changing patterns of places, spaces and environments over time, and the connections between them.

      I can explain the causes and effects of change on places, environments, landscapes and people over time, considering interconnections between factors.

      I can explain patterns of continuity and change in the natural world in different periods of history.

      I can explain the significance of the impact of physical processes upon human societies in the past and present.

      I can understand the responsibility that humans have to create a sustainable natural world.

      I can examine a broad range of religious and non-religious world views about the natural world and the responsibility humanity has towards it.

      I can describe a range of religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can explain some religious and non-religious world views about the nature of life and death and beliefs about life after death and the concept of Ultimate Reality.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can give comprehensive descriptions and explanations of places, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, and apply this knowledge to unfamiliar environments.

      I can create maps, select and utilise a variety of appropriate complex map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, including use of sophisticated digital geographical information systems.

      I can account for distinctive patterns of distribution, at different scales, of features within the natural world.

      I can select and evaluate the suitability of digital and other methods used to locate places, environments, landscapes and spatial patterns of distribution.

      I can evaluate the environmental cost of business activity and suggest strategies as to how different businesses can respond to environmental issues.

      I can comprehensively explain a broad range of physical processes that have contributed to the formation of the natural world.

      I can explain and critically evaluate connections between the causes and effects of change on places, environments, landscapes and people.

      I can critically evaluate the sustainability of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment.

      I can evaluate and explain the patterns of continuity and change in the relationship between humans and the environment in the past and present, and the impact each has upon the other in a range of contexts and at a range of scales, and can suggest possible strategies to reduce these impacts.

      I can understand and explain how environments can become threatened.

      I can understand and explain the consequences of living in an unsustainable way and suggest possible sustainable futures.

      I can critically evaluate a broad range of religious and non-religious world views on the nature of the natural world and the responsibility humanity has towards it.

      I can evaluate a range of religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can explain and evaluate a range of significant religious and non-religious world views about the concepts of Ultimate Reality, the nature of life and death, and beliefs about life after death.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

      • Enquiries focusing on the relationship between humans and the natural world.

      Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

      • Interpretations of changes to the natural world.
      • Interpretations of human responsibility towards the natural world.

      Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

      • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
      • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

      Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

      • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
      • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • The natural world as a stimulus for Expressive Arts.

      Health and Well-being

      • The contribution of the natural world to our health and well-being.
      • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
      • Food production and sustainability.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • The natural world as a stimulus for literature and creative writing.
      • Cultural empathy and sensitivity.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • Use of appropriate equipment to measure accurately.
      • Scale.
      • Time and chronological ordering.

      Science and Technology

      • The role of science in explaining the world around us and how it was formed.
      • The impact of scientific and technological development on the natural world.
      • Living things and their place in the natural world.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • identify the distinctive features of places, environments and landscapes through first-hand exploration
      • communicate their feelings and ideas about the features of familiar places
      • recognise change within familiar places at different times of year
      • recognise some of the effects that humans have on places, environments and landscapes
      • express their feelings about the natural world.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • locate places, environments and landscapes using a variety of resources
      • recognise distinctive physical features of environments, and identify the similarities and differences between them
      • recognise that places change over time and suggest some reasons for this
      • show awareness of some religious and non-religious world views about the natural world, including about the origins of the natural world
      • describe how people’s beliefs influence the way they act towards the world
      • describe some of the effects that humans as consumers and producers have on places, environments and landscapes
      • describe how the natural world has impacted on people and their environments in the past and present
      • express their feelings about the natural world.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • show understanding of the physical features of places, environments and landscapes in Wales and the wider world
      • use annotated maps and diagrams when appropriate
      • create simple maps and utilise a variety of map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, using digital and other methods
      • describe the distribution and changing patterns of places, spaces and environments over time, using appropriate digital and other map skills
      • identify significant past events and describe how they have changed places, environments and landscapes
      • identify how the natural world has impacted on humans in the past and present in both positive and negative ways
      • explain how physical processes have contributed to the formation of physical landscapes
      • describe what sustainability means in a variety of contexts, such as how our actions may lead to the creation of threatened environments if we do not live in a sustainable way in Wales and the wider world
      • describe a range of religious and non-religious beliefs about the natural world and how these could influence the way people form beliefs and interact with the world
      • describe religious and non-religious beliefs about the interconnection between humans and the environment, and about human responsibility for the natural world
      • communicate their feelings and viewpoints about their interactions with the natural world.
    • Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know:

      • about a range of themes and concepts, including agricultural and industrial change, climate change, consumerism, economic and environmental sustainability, employment, nature, natural hazards and disasters, migration, myths, legends and stories, pilgrimage, pollution, population, resource scarcity, sacred places, settlements, trade, war and conflict
      • about the impact of businesses and of people’s actions as producers and consumers on the natural world
      • about the influence of political groups and institutions on the natural world
      • the causes and effects of physical processes that shape places, environments and landscapes
      • the causes and effects of change to places, environments, landscapes and people over time, including economic, political, technological and social factors
      • that a range of physical processes interact to develop distinctive landscapes at a range of scales
      • about sustainability in the context of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment
      • about a variety of factors that have and continue to have a positive and negative impact on the environment in Wales and the wider world.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • give detailed descriptions of place, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, and type and nature of human communities
      • create and utilise a variety of maps, using their map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, and exploiting digital and other methods, including geographical information systems
      • describe and explain patterns and reasons for changes in spatial distribution of settlements and features, such as migration, population or industrialisation
      • explain a range of religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena in the natural world
      • describe some religious and non-religious world views about the concepts of Ultimate Reality, the nature of life and death, and beliefs about life after death
      • describe religious and non-religious world views about change, cause and effect, and the interconnection between humans and the natural world
      • explain how a range of world views inform opinions about the sustainability of the world, including religious and non-religious world views
      • explore a range of beliefs, ethics and philosophies about the natural world and how they influence people’s interactions with the world
      • articulate their experiences and appreciation of interacting with the natural world and the effect this has had upon them
      • use annotated maps and diagrams appropriately
      • explore a range of local environments and experience opportunities to develop their curiosity about and appreciation of them.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know:

      • about a range of themes and concepts, including agricultural and industrial change, climate change, consumerism, economic and environmental sustainability, employment, nature, natural hazards and disasters, migration, myths, legends and stories, pilgrimage, pollution, population, resource scarcity, sacred places, settlements, trade, war and conflict
      • about the impact of businesses and of people’s actions as producers and consumers on the natural world
      • about the influence of political groups and institutions on the natural world
      • the concept of sustainability in the context of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment, such as the way governments, businesses and other organisations respond to environmental issues
      • about a range of religious and non-religious beliefs, teachings and practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena in the natural world
      • about religious and non-religious world views about change, cause and effect regarding the natural world, which may include ideas about interconnectedness and dependent origination
      • about the positive and negative impacts of humans on the natural world in the past and present, in Wales and the wider world
      • about the impact of the natural world on humans, in the past and present, in Wales and the wider world.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • give comprehensive descriptions and explanations of place, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, and type and nature of human communities
      • create, utilise and evaluate the appropriateness of a variety of complex maps and use their map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, through methods which include sophisticated digital geographical information systems
      • evaluate the suitability of digital and other methods used to locate spatial patterns of distribution
      • explain the causes of distinctive patterns of distribution, at different scales, of features in the natural world
      • describe the distribution and changing patterns of places, spaces and environments over time and the connections between them
      • describe and explain the development of a range of physical features, environments and landscapes in Wales and the wider world
      • explain that a range of physical processes interact to shape distinctive landforms at a range of different scales
      • develop a critical understanding of the impact of human actions on a range of places, environments and landscapes
      • critically evaluate a range of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment
      • explain how human actions may lead to the creation of threatened environments if we do not live in a sustainable way
      • critically evaluate a variety of factors that have and continue to have an impact on the environment in Wales and the wider world, such as climate change and the consequences of living in an unsustainable way
      • evaluate the causes and effects of change to places, environments, landscapes and people over time, including economic, business, political, technological and social factors, having an understanding of how these link to sustainability
      • evaluate a range of religious and non-religious world views about the concepts of Ultimate Reality, the nature of life and death, and beliefs about life after death
      • evaluate a range of religious and non-religious beliefs, ethics and philosophies about change, cause and effect, and the interconnection between human experience, behaviour and the natural world, taking into account how they influence people’s interactions with it
      • explain how a range of world views inform opinions about the sustainability of the world, including religious and non-religious world views
      • explain and assess the significance of historical changes and events on the natural world
      • explore a range of environments and experience opportunities to develop their curiosity about and appreciation of them
      • articulate their experiences of interacting with the natural world and the effect this has had upon them.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

    Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

    Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Achievement outcomes

      I can sequence events that happened over a short period of time to show I understand that some things change over time.

      I can identify special times, events and traditions in my community and in the wider world.

      I can identify significant events that have happened to me in the past.

      I can show an awareness of who I am and that I am similar and different to others.

      I can talk about similarities and differences between people in my community.

      I can show an awareness that I am part of different communities.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can sequence events and understand that the past can be divided into periods of time.

      I can recognise similarities and differences between people’s lives in both the past and present.

      I can identify aspects of my community, and how some of them may have been different in the past.

      I can identify some causes and consequences of events and changes in the past and present.

      I can recognise some factors that contribute to my identity and the ways I am similar and different to others.

      I can describe special times, events, traditions and people in my community and in the wider world, and can explain their importance.

      I can understand that societies in Wales and the wider world are made up of diverse groups of people.

      I can show an awareness of the different beliefs that people have.

      I can recognise the importance of the different rules, roles and responsibilities within the various communities to which I belong.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use scaled timelines to order events, and use these to describe how societies have changed or stayed the same over time in Wales and the wider world.

      I can use common terms to describe periods and passage of time.

      I can link and order multiple causes or consequences of significant events.

      I can demonstrate that the consequences of decisions and events can be both positive and negative.

      I am aware of my identity and respect that others have a different identity.

      I can recognise some factors that contribute to my identity and appreciate the ways I am similar and different to others.

      I can explain the importance of special times, events and traditions in my community and in the wider world, and can communicate my feelings about them.

      I can understand that different experiences, religions, world views, beliefs and practices contribute to the diverse societies in Wales and the wider world.

      I can understand the diversity of cultures and societies that exist beyond my own experience, and appreciate the importance of language, beliefs and values in the formation of cultural identities.

      I can respond sensitively to ideas about communities and cultures.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use my understanding of chronology to explain and analyse how different societies have changed or stayed the same over time in Wales and the wider world.

      I can identify significant turning points that influence change in society and explain how these can have positive and negative effects on people’s lives.

      I can categorise and explain causes and consequences of past events, recognising the complex and contested nature of explanation.

      I can explain ways in which my own and others’ identity is expressed,

      I can explain the impact that the actions and decisions of those in positions of authority and power can have on people’s lives.

      I can understand that there are tensions within communities and societies, and I can respond sensitively when discussing them.

      I can explain and evaluate people’s contributions to Welsh society and the wider world.

      I can understand that past human behaviour and relationships influence cultural diversity.

      I can explain ways in which diverse communities can live together cooperatively for the common good.

      I can make meaningful connections and comparisons between societies.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can use my detailed understanding of the nature and extent of change and continuity over an extended period of time to critically analyse how cultures have adapted and changed.

      I can compare and contrast significant turning points, using various criteria that examine the positive and negative on people’s lives.

      I can analyse and explain how various causal factors interrelate over a range of time scales, and how the significance of these factors may be contested.

      I can analyse and explain the significance and consequences of changes in a range of societies in the past and present.

      I can explain the complex nature of my own and others’ identity, how these identities are formed and how they impact on people’s behaviour.

      I can critically analyse a range of complex similarities and differences between diverse societies in the past and present, including through reference to geographical location, culture, religion, politics, world views and the economy.

      I can evaluate the significance of the relationships between a wide range of societies, their connections and interdependencies.

      I can explain the causes and nature of inequalities between and within societies.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

      • Enquiries focusing on how societies are diverse and plural.
      • Enquiries focusing on social sameness and difference.
      • Enquiries focusing on change and continuity.

      Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

      • Historical interpretations.
      • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
      • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

      Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

      • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
      • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

      Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

      • Justice and fairness in societies.
      • Economic development of societies.
      • Political structures in societies.
      • The nature of citizenship.
      • Social roles and responsibilities.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • The importance of expressive arts in shaping culture and societies in the past and present.
      • Explore the arts from various times, cultures and societies.
      • Explore our own and other cultures.
      • The role of expressive arts as a media for expression of interpretations and representations.

      Health and Well-being

      • Social values and norms in societies.
      • Social influences on individuals.
      • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • Literature from a range of cultures and societies.
      • The influence of literature in shaping culture in societies.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • Data to illustrate social differences and inequalities.

      Science and Technology

      • The role of digital technology in modern societies.
      • The influence of science and technology on economies of different societies now and in the past.
      • The influence of inventions and discoveries on the evolution of human societies.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and observe aspects of the communities they are a part of, such as their classroom, school, family and local area, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and appreciate key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners should be able to:

      • use simple timelines to sequence events that they are familiar with over a short timescale, and use appropriate key words to estimate, measure and describe the passage of time
      • recognise themselves and familiar people
      • observe and explore aspects of their community and local area
      • recall and communicate information about events in their lives
      • identify some of the ways that children and young people in the past have had different lives to them.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and observe aspects of the communities they are a part of, such as their classroom, school, family and local area, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and appreciate key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners should know:

      • that there are some features which are characteristic of certain periods in history
      • the similarities and differences between the way people live and have lived in different times and different places, including a specific understanding of how children and young people in the past may have had different lives from children and young people today.

      Learners should know how to and be able to:

      • show an awareness of time and of change over time, and use common terms for the passing of time
      • sequence events and show an understanding that the past can be divided into periods of time
      • recall and communicate information about events in their lives or the lives of others
      • compare and contrast aspects of their lives with a time in the past or people in a different place.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and engage with their communities and beyond, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and engage with key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners should know:

      • about the history and diversity of the communities of which they are part
      • that societies are diverse and change over time, and that these changes can be positive and negative for different groups and in different situations
      • that societies have been and continue to be organised and led in different ways
      • how people’s lives differ within societies, and in different places and at different times, and be able to give reasons for these differences
      • about ways in which diverse communities can live together cooperatively for the common good
      • about ways in which commitment and identity are expressed
      • how businesses and economies have been shaped and changed over time, and the impact they have had on societies
      • the main causes and effects of changes in societies past and present
      • about a variety of individuals and groups of people, both celebrated and less well known, who have had an impact on societies
      • that not everyone shares the same beliefs and that this can cause conflict and disagreement.

      Learners should know how to and be able to:

      • develop a chronological map of the past and compare and contrast characteristic features of different periods
      • recognise the impact of different religions and world views on societies in the past and present
      • respond sensitively to ideas about communities and cultures.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and engage with their communities and beyond, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and engage with key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners need to know:

      • about the history and diversity of the communities and societies of which they are part
      • the variety of ways in which societies are and have been organised and governed
      • connections and comparisons between periods of time in order to develop a chronological map of the past
      • how and why societies and people’s lives have changed or stayed the same, and be able to explain and make judgements about the significance of change and continuity
      • about the diverse nature of religions and world views, beliefs, practices and customs in different societies, and their impact
      • how and why people’s lives differ within societies and in different places and at different times, including a focus on the lives, experiences and beliefs of ordinary people in a range of different societies at different times
      • the causes, effects and nature of a range of changes in societies
      • about a range of ways in which diverse communities can live together cooperatively for the common good
      • about ways in which commitment and identity are expressed
      • about people and groups of people who have had an impact on societies
      • about the diverse nature of societies, including about their beliefs, practices and customs; cultural institutions; ethnicity; equality and inequality; justice; religion and world views; rights; migration; population; religious, political, social, cultural, business, community and charity figures of all genders and orientations; social, political and economic ideologies, organisations and structures
      • about the nature and extent of change over time, including about changing political systems and leadership, along with democracy and devolution; industrial and agricultural change; innovation and technological development; invasion, protest and rebellion; peace and conflict; population change and migration; trade.

      Learners should be able to:

      • describe and explain characteristics of a range of different societies, including their similarities and differences, both in the past and present, in Wales, the United Kingdom, Europe and other parts of the world
      • respond sensitively and insightfully to ideas about communities and cultures, including unity and plurality within and across religions, world views and politics.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and engage with their communities and beyond, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and engage with key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners need to know:

      • about the history and diversity of the communities of which they are part
      • about ways in which commitment and identity are expressed within a wide range of societies and cultures
      • the similarities and differences between societies in the past and present in Wales, the United Kingdom, Europe and in other parts of the world
      • how and why people’s lives differ in different places and at different times, ensuring a focus on the lives, experiences and beliefs of ordinary people in a range of different societies at different times, including those who may traditionally have been under‑represented in the study of the Humanities
      • about the diverse nature of societies, including about their beliefs, practices and customs; cultural institutions; ethnicity; equality and inequality; justice; religion and world views; rights; migration; population; religious, political, social, cultural, business, community and charity figures of all genders and orientations; social, political and economic ideologies, organisations and structures
      • about the nature and extent of change over time, including about changing political systems and leadership, along with democracy and devolution; industrial and agricultural change; innovation and technological development; invasion, protest and rebellion; peace and conflict; population change and migration; trade.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • use an increasingly detailed chronological map or framework to make meaningful connections and comparisons between characteristics of different periods of time, which will allow learners to recognise the dynamics of continuity and change over periods of varying lengths, and relate patterns and trends to larger historical processes
      • analyse and evaluate causes and consequences of decisions and events, and of change and continuity, including economic, political, technological, religious and non-religious world views, cultural and social factors
      • critically analyse a range of ways in which diverse communities can live together co‑operatively for the common good
      • respond sensitively and insightfully to religious and non-religious world views about society, communities and cultures, and understand how these can be interpreted in different times, cultures and places.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

    Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

    Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

    Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise basic morals and rules in communities that are familiar to me.

      I can recognise that my actions and those of others have consequences.

      I can show some awareness of challenges and opportunities faced by myself, my family and friends.

      I can take care of the environment and other people in a variety of ways.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can describe basic morals and rules in a range of contexts.

      I can describe the positive and negative effect of my actions and those of others.

      I can talk about challenges and opportunities faced by myself, people in Wales and the wider world, and describe how people respond to them.

      I can understand the difference between wants, needs and rights.

      I can recognise some ways that I and others have a positive and negative impact on the environment and a range of communities.

      I can recognise how responding to challenges and opportunities can be of benefit to me and others.

      I have developed enterprising attitudes and skills when responding to a variety of challenges and opportunities.

      I have been part of a group engaged in responsible social action, in my local community, to effect positive change.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise that people have the same rights, but that some are not treated equally and that there are organisations that campaign on their behalf.

      I can understand how people’s behaviour, actions and decisions are influenced by their viewpoint.

      I can understand the consequences of my actions, and the actions of others, and how these affect local, national and global issues.

      I can identify how challenges and opportunities can link different people and countries.

      I can understand the causes and effects of past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in a variety of contexts, and the responses to them.

      I can describe the potential impact of my actions on myself and future generations.

      I have planned and taken an active role as a responsible citizen, in response to challenges and opportunities within my local community, Wales or the wider world.

      I have been part of a group engaged in responsible social action, in my local community or in Wales, to effect positive change.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can understand the causes and consequences of injustice and inequality.

      I can explain the impacts of decisions made at local, national or global levels on people and the environment.

      I can explain how people’s different beliefs and experiences impact upon moral and ethical decision‑making.

      I can explain the connections between past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities faced by people in Wales and the wider world.

      I can explain the importance of current human rights issues and movements in Wales and the wider world, and the importance of individuals, organisations and societies in protecting or denying people’s rights.

      I have identified, planned and taken action as a responsible citizen in my local community, or in Wales or the wider world, to effect positive change, individually or collaboratively.

      I can assess the impact and evaluate the effectiveness of my actions on myself and future generations, suggesting improvements.

      I can understand that when I take social action it benefits my self-development as well as benefiting other people.

    • Achievement outcomes

      I can analyse the underlying causes of injustice and inequality and how governments and non-government organisations respond to them.

      I can use disciplinary lenses when exploring challenges and opportunities faced by people in Wales and the wider world.

      I can evaluate other people’s viewpoints and responses to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities, understanding the impact that they may have on moral and ethical decision‑making.

      I can synthesise a range of responses to complex challenges and opportunities, to form an independent, coherent and substantiated conclusion.

      I can evaluate the underlying causes of current human rights issues and movements in Wales and the wider world, and the various factors that undermine or support people’s rights.

      I can utilise the skills needed to contribute effectively to the world of work and my anticipated career path for the future.

      I have taken an active role in raising awareness of challenges and opportunities locally, nationally or globally.

      I can identify, plan, take action and evaluate the role I play as a responsible citizen in my local and wider community, Wales and the wider world, individually or collaboratively.

      I can evaluate the impact and effectiveness of my actions and the actions of others, identify specific strengths and weaknesses, and plan strategic improvements.

      I can critically evaluate how my own beliefs and actions contribute to my role as an ethical, informed citizen and the benefit this has upon me and my self-development.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

      • Enquiries focused on developing understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

      Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

      • An individual’s view of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
      • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

      Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

      • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
      • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
      • The impact of actions on the environment.

      Human societies are complex and diverse, and shaped by human actions and beliefs.

      • Justice and fairness in societies.
      • Economic development of societies.
      • Political structures in societies.
      • The nature of citizenship.
      • Social roles and responsibilities.
      • Impact of actions on society.
    • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

      Expressive Arts

      • Ways of expressing and representing the themes of rights, respect, equality and justice through Expressive Arts.

      Health and Well-being

      • The importance of decision‑making to support ethical and sustainable responses to challenges and opportunities.
      • Recognising appropriate behaviours in different situations.
      • Responding sensitively to the needs of others.
      • Developing relationships to support citizenship.
      • Social influences and citizenship.
      • Understanding rights, respect and equity.

      Languages, Literacy and Communication

      • Discussion of social issues.

      Mathematics and Numeracy

      • An individual’s economic role, including being financially literate.

      Science and Technology

      • The scientific, technological and digital challenges facing humanity.
      • Potential scientific and technological solutions to the challenges facing humanity.
      • Digital interdependence.
      • The digital economy.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and engage with challenges and opportunities in their locality, Wales or the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale
      • opportunities to engage with local groups, organisations and businesses.

      Learners need to know:

      • the concepts of right and wrong and of fair and unfair in a familiar context
      • that other people’s actions can have an impact on them and that their actions also impact on others
      • some of the challenges and opportunities facing themselves and their communities.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • participate in actions and events in response to challenges and opportunities in their immediate environment.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and engage with challenges and opportunities in their locality, Wales or the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale
      • opportunities to engage with local groups, organisations and businesses
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the importance of the rules, roles and responsibilities in the various communities that they belong to
      • what is right and wrong and what fairness means in a range of contexts
      • that their actions and the actions of others can impact positively and negatively on other people and the environment
      • that the actions of people and groups in the past have led to changes in people’s lives
      • the challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • the difference between wants, needs and rights, and how needs might inform people’s rights
      • that children have rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the importance of respecting the rights of others
      • sustainable and unsustainable responses to challenges and opportunities, including how ethical trading and the work of organisations and charities can have an impact on themselves and communities, and how people damage or improve the environment in different ways.

      Learners should know how to and be able to:

      • develop enterprising attitudes and skills through participating in events in their locality
      • participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities in their locality.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and respond to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale, and understand the impacts of inequality and injustice
      • opportunities to engage with groups, organisations and businesses when planning and taking social action
      • exploring local, national and international groups, organisations and businesses and the ways they are responsible for and respond to the challenges and opportunities faced by their locality, Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the concepts of fairness and equality
      • the difference between wants, needs and rights, and how needs might inform human rights
      • that children have human rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the importance of respecting the rights of others
      • the challenges to human rights on a local, national and global scale in the past and present
      • the work of organisations campaigning for equality for all and for human rights
      • the impact of their own and others’ actions, which can have local, national and global consequences, such as the way consumer actions can affect the environment and people’s quality of life
      • their responsibility for the environment, including how their own and others’ lifestyles impact on the planet and on other people
      • the influence of people’s viewpoints on their behaviour, actions and decisions
      • how challenges and opportunities facing Wales and the wider world may be linked to other people and places
      • the causes of past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities
      • the significance of past and contemporary challenges and opportunities
      • the different ways in which social change has been effected in the past
      • about consequences of the sustainable and unsustainable ways in which people respond to challenges and opportunities, including the benefits and drawbacks of ethical trading and the work of organisations and charities
      • societal, political, economic and environmental sustainability, and the importance of sustainable relationships for the future
      • about some beliefs, teachings and practices that influence social action.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • develop enterprising attitudes and skills through planning and participating in events in their local community
      • plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities on a local, national or global scale.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and respond to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale and to understand the impacts of inequality and injustice (from Progression step 3 onwards)
      • opportunities to engage with groups, organisations and businesses when planning and taking social action
      • exploring local, national and international groups, organisations and businesses and the ways they are responsible for and respond to the challenges and opportunities faced by their locality, Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the different contexts in which inequality can exist, such as in gender, sexuality and race contexts
      • the difference between injustice and inequality
      • the causes and consequences of injustice and inequality
      • the importance of diversity and how diversity shouldn’t result in injustice or inequality
      • about human rights, including that children have human rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the importance of respecting the rights of others
      • the challenges to human rights on a local, national and global scale in the past and present
      • a range of ways in which social change has been effected in the past, and how these changes have impacted on people’s lives
      • the interconnections between challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • that causes and consequences of past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities can be influenced by ethical and moral judgements and viewpoints
      • the power and authority of local, national, and global governance, and of non-government organisations, such as in environmental issues and in protecting or denying human rights
      • the use and misuse of power, including conflict, democracy, the imbalance of power between rich and poor countries, the significance of national and international organisations
      • the changing local, national and international economies, including how technology can have economic impact
      • their own and others’ environmental role and responsibility in creating a sustainable future
      • about the beliefs, teachings and practices that influence social action.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • utilise their enterprising attitudes and skills through planning and participating in a range of events
      • plan, participate in and evaluate their social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally.
    • Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and respond to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale, and to understand the impacts of inequality and injustice
      • opportunities to engage with groups, organisations and businesses when planning and taking social action
      • exploring local, national and international groups, organisations and businesses and the ways they are responsible for and respond to the challenges and opportunities faced by their locality, Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the underlying causes of poverty and inequality and how they relate to policies, power and systems
      • the differing views on poverty, inequality and injustice
      • the consequences of national and international initiatives to tackle poverty and inequality
      • the underlying causes of past and contemporary human and children’s rights violations, and the political, legal, socio-cultural, religious and economic factors that support or undermine human rights in Wales and the wider world
      • about human rights, including that children have human rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the challenges to human rights on a local, national and global scale in the past and present
      • the causes and nature of the challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • the connections between complex past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • the range of ways in which social change has been effected in the past, and how these have led to significant impacts upon societies and communities
      • the importance of the role of individuals, including themselves, and the role of groups, including governments, businesses and non-government organisations, in the creation of a sustainable future
      • how individuals, groups and organisations can collaborate when responding to challenges and opportunities
      • how the expansion of power and influence of countries or organisations may impact on the cultures, attitudes and experiences of those involved
      • how they can contribute to the world of work and the economy
      • how morals, ethics, religion and world views affect people’s responses to challenges and opportunities and their engagement in social action.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • utilise their enterprising attitudes and skills through planning and participating in a wide range of events, and evaluate the effectiveness of their own role
      • utilise their social and political literacy to build a conscious understanding of their own role and their responsibilities towards others and towards the environment
      • respond sensitively to diverse perspectives and cultural norms.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can ask simple questions and offer possible answers based on previous experiences.

      I can begin to record my observations in simple ways and communicate my findings.

      I have shown curiosity about the world around me.

    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can communicate my ideas about my own experiences.

      I can recognise that my feelings, actions and opinions can be different from those of others.

      I can understand personal events in the past, present and future are significant to me.

      I can form and express my opinion about familiar issues and recognise that my opinion has value to me.

      I have had opportunities to discuss my opinions about things I have experienced with other people.

    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise where places are and how they are distinct from and similar to each other.

      I can communicate my feelings about the natural world.

    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can sequence events that happened over a short period of time to show I understand that some things change over time.

      I can identify special times, events and traditions in my community and in the wider world.

      I can identify significant events that have happened to me in the past.

      I can show an awareness of who I am and that I am similar and different to others.

      I can talk about similarities and differences between people in my community.

      I can show an awareness that I am part of different communities.

    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise basic morals and rules in communities that are familiar to me.

      I can recognise that my actions and those of others have consequences.

      I can show some awareness of challenges and opportunities faced by myself, my family and friends.

      I can take care of the environment and other people in a variety of ways.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning. Developing an enquiring mind and experiencing enquiries allows learners to investigate and consider all aspects of Humanities.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Enquiries with a focus on exploring different interpretations.
        • Secondary evidence used in enquiries can illustrate varied viewpoints, interpretations and representations.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Enquiries with a focus on human relationships and impact upon the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Enquiries with a focus on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries with a focus on change and continuity.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Through enquiry, learners develop their understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Art, music, theatre, literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Health and Well-being

        • Using Humanities methodology to consider aspects of health and well-being such as mental, physical and emotional health.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of qualitative data as evidence for enquiries.
        • Collection of primary data.
        • Sampling methods and statistical techniques of analysing data.
        • Representation of data in graphical form.
        • Interpreting a range of graphs.
        • Sorting and classifying.
        • Spotting trends and anomalies.

        Science and Technology

        • The nature of enquiry as it relates to Science and Technology.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of ongoing opportunities for exploration and discovery through play
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore, observe and question
      • make and record observations and findings, using digital and other methods.
    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Understanding that interpretations and viewpoints can develop from specific enquiries.
        • Interpretations presented by specific sources and evidence.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Interpretations and viewpoints on the relationship between humans and the natural world, e.g. climate change.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Historical interpretations of people and events.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • An individual’s viewpoint of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Expressive arts act as mediums for the expression of interpretations and viewpoints.

        Health and Well-being

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.
        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as a medium of expression for interpretations.
        • Identity and language.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Interpreting data, i.e. economic trends.

        Science and Technology

        • Interpretations of scientific discoveries and their impact on the world.
        • Perceptions of the natural world.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that enthuse and inspire them to be curious about, engage with and explore their locality
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • what opinions are, and recognise that they and others have opinions.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • discuss and express their opinions about their experiences or issues that are familiar to them
      • recognise that their opinions, and the opinions of others, have value
      • use words, signs or symbols to communicate observations, thoughts and feelings.
    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on the relationship between humans and the natural world.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Interpretations of changes to the natural world.
        • Interpretations of human responsibility towards the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The natural world as a stimulus for Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The contribution of the natural world to our health and well-being.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The natural world as a stimulus for literature and creative writing.
        • Cultural empathy and sensitivity.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of appropriate equipment to measure accurately.
        • Scale.
        • Time and chronological ordering.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of science in explaining the world around us and how it was formed.
        • The impact of scientific and technological development on the natural world.
        • Living things and their place in the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • identify the distinctive features of places, environments and landscapes through first-hand exploration
      • communicate their feelings and ideas about the features of familiar places
      • recognise change within familiar places at different times of year
      • recognise some of the effects that humans have on places, environments and landscapes
      • express their feelings about the natural world.
    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries focusing on social sameness and difference.
        • Enquiries focusing on change and continuity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Historical interpretations.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of expressive arts in shaping culture and societies in the past and present.
        • Explore the arts from various times, cultures and societies.
        • Explore our own and other cultures.
        • The role of expressive arts as a media for expression of interpretations and representations.

        Health and Well-being

        • Social values and norms in societies.
        • Social influences on individuals.
        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature from a range of cultures and societies.
        • The influence of literature in shaping culture in societies.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Data to illustrate social differences and inequalities.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of digital technology in modern societies.
        • The influence of science and technology on economies of different societies now and in the past.
        • The influence of inventions and discoveries on the evolution of human societies.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and observe aspects of the communities they are a part of, such as their classroom, school, family and local area, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and appreciate key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners should be able to:

      • use simple timelines to sequence events that they are familiar with over a short timescale, and use appropriate key words to estimate, measure and describe the passage of time
      • recognise themselves and familiar people
      • observe and explore aspects of their community and local area
      • recall and communicate information about events in their lives
      • identify some of the ways that children and young people in the past have had different lives to them.
    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focused on developing understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • An individual’s view of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
        • The impact of actions on the environment.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
        • Impact of actions on society.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Ways of expressing and representing the themes of rights, respect, equality and justice through Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The importance of decision‑making to support ethical and sustainable responses to challenges and opportunities.
        • Recognising appropriate behaviours in different situations.
        • Responding sensitively to the needs of others.
        • Developing relationships to support citizenship.
        • Social influences and citizenship.
        • Understanding rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Discussion of social issues.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • An individual’s economic role, including being financially literate.

        Science and Technology

        • The scientific, technological and digital challenges facing humanity.
        • Potential scientific and technological solutions to the challenges facing humanity.
        • Digital interdependence.
        • The digital economy.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and engage with challenges and opportunities in their locality, Wales or the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale
      • opportunities to engage with local groups, organisations and businesses.

      Learners need to know:

      • the concepts of right and wrong and of fair and unfair in a familiar context
      • that other people’s actions can have an impact on them and that their actions also impact on others
      • some of the challenges and opportunities facing themselves and their communities.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • participate in actions and events in response to challenges and opportunities in their immediate environment.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can ask and respond to a range of questions as part of enquiries.

      I can make suggestions for possible enquiries.

      I can make and record my observations in a variety of ways.

      I can collect and record information and data from given sources in order to answer specific questions.

      I can sort and group evidence, using more than one criterion relating to an enquiry.

      I can give simple explanations for my findings.

      I can draw simple conclusions.

      I have had opportunities to participate in enquiries, focusing on my locality, Wales and the wider world.

      I have used a range of stimuli and evidence, including visual, physical and oral sources, that have been provided for me.

      I have had a range of opportunities to collaborate with others to explore and engage in primary research, including fieldwork and visits, and to investigate local environments or issues.

    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise other people’s viewpoints about familiar events or experiences.

      I can recognise that not everything will stay the same and that time can cause opinions to change.

      I can understand that other people explain things in different ways, and I can consider the merits of these different viewpoints and explanations.

      I can describe my feelings, actions and opinions, and explain how they are different from those of others.

      I can form an opinion about something that is important to me, considering my own ideas and those of others.

      I have had opportunities to discuss my opinions and ideas with other people.

    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can describe the distinct physical features of places, environments and landscapes in Wales and the wider world.

      I can recognise some religious and non-religious beliefs about the natural world and how this could influence the way people interact with the world.

      I can identify some significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can describe how people’s actions and the natural world impact upon each other, both in the past and present.

    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can sequence events and understand that the past can be divided into periods of time.

      I can recognise similarities and differences between people’s lives in both the past and present.

      I can identify aspects of my community, and how some of them may have been different in the past.

      I can identify some causes and consequences of events and changes in the past and present.

      I can recognise some factors that contribute to my identity and the ways I am similar and different to others.

      I can describe special times, events, traditions and people in my community and in the wider world, and can explain their importance.

      I can understand that societies in Wales and the wider world are made up of diverse groups of people.

      I can show an awareness of the different beliefs that people have.

      I can recognise the importance of the different rules, roles and responsibilities within the various communities to which I belong.

    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can describe basic morals and rules in a range of contexts.

      I can describe the positive and negative effect of my actions and those of others.

      I can talk about challenges and opportunities faced by myself, people in Wales and the wider world, and describe how people respond to them.

      I can understand the difference between wants, needs and rights.

      I can recognise some ways that I and others have a positive and negative impact on the environment and a range of communities.

      I can recognise how responding to challenges and opportunities can be of benefit to me and others.

      I have developed enterprising attitudes and skills when responding to a variety of challenges and opportunities.

      I have been part of a group engaged in responsible social action, in my local community, to effect positive change.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning. Developing an enquiring mind and experiencing enquiries allows learners to investigate and consider all aspects of Humanities.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Enquiries with a focus on exploring different interpretations.
        • Secondary evidence used in enquiries can illustrate varied viewpoints, interpretations and representations.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Enquiries with a focus on human relationships and impact upon the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Enquiries with a focus on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries with a focus on change and continuity.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Through enquiry, learners develop their understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Art, music, theatre, literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Health and Well-being

        • Using Humanities methodology to consider aspects of health and well-being such as mental, physical and emotional health.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of qualitative data as evidence for enquiries.
        • Collection of primary data.
        • Sampling methods and statistical techniques of analysing data.
        • Representation of data in graphical form.
        • Interpreting a range of graphs.
        • Sorting and classifying.
        • Spotting trends and anomalies.

        Science and Technology

        • The nature of enquiry as it relates to Science and Technology.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of ongoing opportunities for exploration and discovery through play
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore, observe and question
      • gather, sort and group different types of evidence
      • make and record observations and findings, using digital and other methods
      • draw and explain a simple conclusion
      • undertake enquires relating to a range of interdisciplinary themes
      • explore philosophical questions about life.
    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Understanding that interpretations and viewpoints can develop from specific enquiries.
        • Interpretations presented by specific sources and evidence.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Interpretations and viewpoints on the relationship between humans and the natural world, e.g. climate change.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Historical interpretations of people and events.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • An individual’s viewpoint of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Expressive arts act as mediums for the expression of interpretations and viewpoints.

        Health and Well-being

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.
        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as a medium of expression for interpretations.
        • Identity and language.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Interpreting data, i.e. economic trends.

        Science and Technology

        • Interpretations of scientific discoveries and their impact on the world.
        • Perceptions of the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in, and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • offer their own ideas and make connections
      • explore, find out about and discuss issues and events from within and across the Humanities disciplines
      • to form and express their own opinions on issues
      • communicate their observations, thoughts and feelings using words, signs or symbols
      • recognise that people have different opinions and viewpoints and that they may differ from their own.
    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on the relationship between humans and the natural world.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Interpretations of changes to the natural world.
        • Interpretations of human responsibility towards the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The natural world as a stimulus for Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The contribution of the natural world to our health and well-being.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The natural world as a stimulus for literature and creative writing.
        • Cultural empathy and sensitivity.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of appropriate equipment to measure accurately.
        • Scale.
        • Time and chronological ordering.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of science in explaining the world around us and how it was formed.
        • The impact of scientific and technological development on the natural world.
        • Living things and their place in the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • locate places, environments and landscapes using a variety of resources
      • recognise distinctive physical features of environments, and identify the similarities and differences between them
      • recognise that places change over time and suggest some reasons for this
      • show awareness of some religious and non-religious world views about the natural world, including about the origins of the natural world
      • describe how people’s beliefs influence the way they act towards the world
      • describe some of the effects that humans as consumers and producers have on places, environments and landscapes
      • describe how the natural world has impacted on people and their environments in the past and present
      • express their feelings about the natural world.
    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries focusing on social sameness and difference.
        • Enquiries focusing on change and continuity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Historical interpretations.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of expressive arts in shaping culture and societies in the past and present.
        • Explore the arts from various times, cultures and societies.
        • Explore our own and other cultures.
        • The role of expressive arts as a media for expression of interpretations and representations.

        Health and Well-being

        • Social values and norms in societies.
        • Social influences on individuals.
        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature from a range of cultures and societies.
        • The influence of literature in shaping culture in societies.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Data to illustrate social differences and inequalities.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of digital technology in modern societies.
        • The influence of science and technology on economies of different societies now and in the past.
        • The influence of inventions and discoveries on the evolution of human societies.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and observe aspects of the communities they are a part of, such as their classroom, school, family and local area, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and appreciate key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners should know:

      • that there are some features which are characteristic of certain periods in history
      • the similarities and differences between the way people live and have lived in different times and different places, including a specific understanding of how children and young people in the past may have had different lives from children and young people today.

      Learners should know how to and be able to:

      • show an awareness of time and of change over time, and use common terms for the passing of time
      • sequence events and show an understanding that the past can be divided into periods of time
      • recall and communicate information about events in their lives or the lives of others
      • compare and contrast aspects of their lives with a time in the past or people in a different place.
    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focused on developing understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • An individual’s view of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
        • The impact of actions on the environment.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
        • Impact of actions on society.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Ways of expressing and representing the themes of rights, respect, equality and justice through Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The importance of decision‑making to support ethical and sustainable responses to challenges and opportunities.
        • Recognising appropriate behaviours in different situations.
        • Responding sensitively to the needs of others.
        • Developing relationships to support citizenship.
        • Social influences and citizenship.
        • Understanding rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Discussion of social issues.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • An individual’s economic role, including being financially literate.

        Science and Technology

        • The scientific, technological and digital challenges facing humanity.
        • Potential scientific and technological solutions to the challenges facing humanity.
        • Digital interdependence.
        • The digital economy.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and engage with challenges and opportunities in their locality, Wales or the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale
      • opportunities to engage with local groups, organisations and businesses
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the importance of the rules, roles and responsibilities in the various communities that they belong to
      • what is right and wrong and what fairness means in a range of contexts
      • that their actions and the actions of others can impact positively and negatively on other people and the environment
      • that the actions of people and groups in the past have led to changes in people’s lives
      • the challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • the difference between wants, needs and rights, and how needs might inform people’s rights
      • that children have rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the importance of respecting the rights of others
      • sustainable and unsustainable responses to challenges and opportunities, including how ethical trading and the work of organisations and charities can have an impact on themselves and communities, and how people damage or improve the environment in different ways.

      Learners should know how to and be able to:

      • develop enterprising attitudes and skills through participating in events in their locality
      • participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities in their locality.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use my experiences and knowledge to frame appropriate enquiries.

      I can generate ideas, make predictions, and plan several different ways to approach a given situation or task, as well as experiment with a range of options when putting these ideas into action.

      I can explore the differences between facts, opinions and beliefs.

      I can find and collect a range of evidence to support my enquiry with some independence.

      I can present my findings in a range of ways, using appropriate methods.

      I can evaluate the significance and usefulness of the evidence I am exploring.

      I can interpret data and information and use this to inform my conclusions, giving reasons.

      I can draw and present conclusions for my findings, and can describe an evidence-supported decision or conclusion based on the enquiry process I have undertaken.

      I can evaluate and reflect on my enquiry, describing the steps I have taken, and identify areas for improvement.

      I have actively engaged in enquires, both independently and collaboratively.

      I have undertaken enquiries focusing on interdisciplinary themes.

      I have experienced enquiries focusing on my locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      I have experienced enquiries focusing on my own beliefs, values and world views, and those of others.

      I have used a range of sources and evidence, including written, visual, physical and oral sources that have been gained from my research.

      I have experienced opportunities for undertaking primary research in my local area and beyond.

    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can give evidence for an argument or viewpoint and present counterarguments.

      I have been able to infer people’s opinions, viewpoints and interpretations from sources and evidence.

      I can recognise that people have different opinions about the significance of people, events and experiences in the past and present.

      I can recognise, accept and understand that people have different opinions and viewpoints about an issue, and am able to compare different interpretations of the same issue.

      I can recount the evidence people use to interpret events and issues in different ways.

      I have been able to form, express and discuss my own opinion on issues, after considering some evidence and the views of others.

      I have discussed my own and others’ responses to questions about life, experiences and the world, including consideration of Ultimate questions, and I have discussed these issues with people who do not always have the same opinion as I have.

      I understand that people’s views and opinions may change over time.

      I can explain how some aspects of the past have been represented and interpreted in different ways.

    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can describe and locate places, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, using map skills where appropriate.

      I can describe patterns of distribution of features in the natural world and begin to give reasons for these patterns.

      I can show understanding of the causes and effects of the events and physical processes that shape places, environments, landscapes and people.

      I can describe how human actions have led to both continuity and change in the natural world in different periods of history.

      I can describe how physical processes have impacted upon human societies in history and how they have led to change and continuity.

      I can show understanding of the concept of sustainability.

      I can describe a range of religious and non-religious world views about the natural world.

      I can describe some religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can describe how beliefs can impact on human action on the natural world.

      I can communicate my views and feelings about the natural world and the part I play in it.

    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use scaled timelines to order events, and use these to describe how societies have changed or stayed the same over time in Wales and the wider world.

      I can use common terms to describe periods and passage of time.

      I can link and order multiple causes or consequences of significant events.

      I can demonstrate that the consequences of decisions and events can be both positive and negative.

      I am aware of my identity and respect that others have a different identity.

      I can recognise some factors that contribute to my identity and appreciate the ways I am similar and different to others.

      I can explain the importance of special times, events and traditions in my community and in the wider world, and can communicate my feelings about them.

      I can understand that different experiences, religions, world views, beliefs and practices contribute to the diverse societies in Wales and the wider world.

      I can understand the diversity of cultures and societies that exist beyond my own experience, and appreciate the importance of language, beliefs and values in the formation of cultural identities.

      I can respond sensitively to ideas about communities and cultures.

    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can recognise that people have the same rights, but that some are not treated equally and that there are organisations that campaign on their behalf.

      I can understand how people’s behaviour, actions and decisions are influenced by their viewpoint.

      I can understand the consequences of my actions, and the actions of others, and how these affect local, national and global issues.

      I can identify how challenges and opportunities can link different people and countries.

      I can understand the causes and effects of past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in a variety of contexts, and the responses to them.

      I can describe the potential impact of my actions on myself and future generations.

      I have planned and taken an active role as a responsible citizen, in response to challenges and opportunities within my local community, Wales or the wider world.

      I have been part of a group engaged in responsible social action, in my local community or in Wales, to effect positive change.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning. Developing an enquiring mind and experiencing enquiries allows learners to investigate and consider all aspects of Humanities.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Enquiries with a focus on exploring different interpretations.
        • Secondary evidence used in enquiries can illustrate varied viewpoints, interpretations and representations.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Enquiries with a focus on human relationships and impact upon the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Enquiries with a focus on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries with a focus on change and continuity.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Through enquiry, learners develop their understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Art, music, theatre, literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Health and Well-being

        • Using Humanities methodology to consider aspects of health and well-being such as mental, physical and emotional health.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of qualitative data as evidence for enquiries.
        • Collection of primary data.
        • Sampling methods and statistical techniques of analysing data.
        • Representation of data in graphical form.
        • Interpreting a range of graphs.
        • Sorting and classifying.
        • Spotting trends and anomalies.

        Science and Technology

        • The nature of enquiry as it relates to Science and Technology.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present.

      Learners need to know:

      • the methodology used in Humanities enquiries and how this may differ between disciplines
      • the difference between facts, opinion, beliefs and how this contributes to the relevance and use of evidence.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • undertake enquiries relating to both interdisciplinary and disciplinary themes
      • select enquiry methods appropriate to the specific enquiry
      • observe and use prior knowledge to formulate appropriate questions
      • gather evidence from a range of sources
      • interpret findings in order to draw a conclusion or make a judgement
      • identify the relevance of the information collected
      • arrange and present findings appropriately, using digital techniques when appropriate
      • reflect on enquiries, ask questions about the learning process, and also look forward to where an enquiry is leading next
      • reflect on and evaluate the application of digital tools in enquiries.
    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Understanding that interpretations and viewpoints can develop from specific enquiries.
        • Interpretations presented by specific sources and evidence.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Interpretations and viewpoints on the relationship between humans and the natural world, e.g. climate change.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Historical interpretations of people and events.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • An individual’s viewpoint of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Expressive arts act as mediums for the expression of interpretations and viewpoints.

        Health and Well-being

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.
        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as a medium of expression for interpretations.
        • Identity and language.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Interpreting data, i.e. economic trends.

        Science and Technology

        • Interpretations of scientific discoveries and their impact on the world.
        • Perceptions of the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in, and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • collaborative discussion on a wide range of varied viewpoints and interpretations, including opportunities for formal and informal debates
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • that people have different opinions and recount the evidence used for these opinions
      • how sources and evidence can provide interpretations
      • how sources and evidence are used to form and justify people’s interpretations.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore local, national and global issues, and engage with multiple perspectives relating to these issues
      • engage with a range of issues and compare different interpretations of the same event or issue, and consider how people differ in their views of significant people, events or changes
      • form, express and discuss opinions
      • engage with interpretations presented in sources, and use these interpretations to support their own interpretations
      • explore layers of meaning within symbolic representations.
    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on the relationship between humans and the natural world.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Interpretations of changes to the natural world.
        • Interpretations of human responsibility towards the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The natural world as a stimulus for Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The contribution of the natural world to our health and well-being.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The natural world as a stimulus for literature and creative writing.
        • Cultural empathy and sensitivity.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of appropriate equipment to measure accurately.
        • Scale.
        • Time and chronological ordering.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of science in explaining the world around us and how it was formed.
        • The impact of scientific and technological development on the natural world.
        • Living things and their place in the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • show understanding of the physical features of places, environments and landscapes in Wales and the wider world
      • use annotated maps and diagrams when appropriate
      • create simple maps and utilise a variety of map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, using digital and other methods
      • describe the distribution and changing patterns of places, spaces and environments over time, using appropriate digital and other map skills
      • identify significant past events and describe how they have changed places, environments and landscapes
      • identify how the natural world has impacted on humans in the past and present in both positive and negative ways
      • explain how physical processes have contributed to the formation of physical landscapes
      • describe what sustainability means in a variety of contexts, such as how our actions may lead to the creation of threatened environments if we do not live in a sustainable way in Wales and the wider world
      • describe a range of religious and non-religious beliefs about the natural world and how these could influence the way people form beliefs and interact with the world
      • describe religious and non-religious beliefs about the interconnection between humans and the environment, and about human responsibility for the natural world
      • communicate their feelings and viewpoints about their interactions with the natural world.
    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries focusing on social sameness and difference.
        • Enquiries focusing on change and continuity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Historical interpretations.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of expressive arts in shaping culture and societies in the past and present.
        • Explore the arts from various times, cultures and societies.
        • Explore our own and other cultures.
        • The role of expressive arts as a media for expression of interpretations and representations.

        Health and Well-being

        • Social values and norms in societies.
        • Social influences on individuals.
        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature from a range of cultures and societies.
        • The influence of literature in shaping culture in societies.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Data to illustrate social differences and inequalities.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of digital technology in modern societies.
        • The influence of science and technology on economies of different societies now and in the past.
        • The influence of inventions and discoveries on the evolution of human societies.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and engage with their communities and beyond, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and engage with key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners should know:

      • about the history and diversity of the communities of which they are part
      • that societies are diverse and change over time, and that these changes can be positive and negative for different groups and in different situations
      • that societies have been and continue to be organised and led in different ways
      • how people’s lives differ within societies, and in different places and at different times, and be able to give reasons for these differences
      • about ways in which diverse communities can live together cooperatively for the common good
      • about ways in which commitment and identity are expressed
      • how businesses and economies have been shaped and changed over time, and the impact they have had on societies
      • the main causes and effects of changes in societies past and present
      • about a variety of individuals and groups of people, both celebrated and less well known, who have had an impact on societies
      • that not everyone shares the same beliefs and that this can cause conflict and disagreement.

      Learners should know how to and be able to:

      • develop a chronological map of the past and compare and contrast characteristic features of different periods
      • recognise the impact of different religions and world views on societies in the past and present
      • respond sensitively to ideas about communities and cultures.
    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focused on developing understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • An individual’s view of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
        • The impact of actions on the environment.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
        • Impact of actions on society.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Ways of expressing and representing the themes of rights, respect, equality and justice through Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The importance of decision‑making to support ethical and sustainable responses to challenges and opportunities.
        • Recognising appropriate behaviours in different situations.
        • Responding sensitively to the needs of others.
        • Developing relationships to support citizenship.
        • Social influences and citizenship.
        • Understanding rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Discussion of social issues.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • An individual’s economic role, including being financially literate.

        Science and Technology

        • The scientific, technological and digital challenges facing humanity.
        • Potential scientific and technological solutions to the challenges facing humanity.
        • Digital interdependence.
        • The digital economy.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and respond to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale, and understand the impacts of inequality and injustice
      • opportunities to engage with groups, organisations and businesses when planning and taking social action
      • exploring local, national and international groups, organisations and businesses and the ways they are responsible for and respond to the challenges and opportunities faced by their locality, Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the concepts of fairness and equality
      • the difference between wants, needs and rights, and how needs might inform human rights
      • that children have human rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the importance of respecting the rights of others
      • the challenges to human rights on a local, national and global scale in the past and present
      • the work of organisations campaigning for equality for all and for human rights
      • the impact of their own and others’ actions, which can have local, national and global consequences, such as the way consumer actions can affect the environment and people’s quality of life
      • their responsibility for the environment, including how their own and others’ lifestyles impact on the planet and on other people
      • the influence of people’s viewpoints on their behaviour, actions and decisions
      • how challenges and opportunities facing Wales and the wider world may be linked to other people and places
      • the causes of past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities
      • the significance of past and contemporary challenges and opportunities
      • the different ways in which social change has been effected in the past
      • about consequences of the sustainable and unsustainable ways in which people respond to challenges and opportunities, including the benefits and drawbacks of ethical trading and the work of organisations and charities
      • societal, political, economic and environmental sustainability, and the importance of sustainable relationships for the future
      • about some beliefs, teachings and practices that influence social action.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • develop enterprising attitudes and skills through planning and participating in events in their local community
      • plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities on a local, national or global scale.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can formulate and respond to open-ended and complex questions.

      I can consider a range of known strategies to conduct an enquiry and independently select the most effective approach.

      I can independently identify and select a variety of relevant evidence, and I can infer meaning to draw reasoned conclusions.

      I can select the appropriate research methods.

      I can gather a variety of relevant evidence, including quantitative and qualitative data.

      I can present my findings and data, utilising a range of increasingly sophisticated methods.

      I can analyse my findings, describing patterns and explaining relationships across data sets.

      I can describe the decision or conclusion I have come to.

      I can understand that others can draw different conclusions even when using the same evidence.

      I can evaluate the usefulness and analyse the reliability of evidence.

      I can reference the sources I have used to reach my conclusions.

      I can effectively evaluate the success of the enquiry process used, and suggest some improvements.

      I can understand that each of the above are required elements of a process of enquiry, which can be applied to a variety of Humanities questions.

      I can identify and explain some differences between the process of enquiry in the different Humanities disciplines.

      I have undertaken independent and collaborative enquiries in Humanities.

      I have had the opportunity for reflection on how my enquiry may add meaning to my own life and may contribute to my sense of place in the world.

      I have undertaken enquiries focusing on questions relating to specific Humanities subject areas, as well as interdisciplinary themes and questions.

      I have developed and led my own enquiries focusing on my locality, Wales, and the wider world, now and in the past.

      I have developed and led my own enquiries focusing on my own beliefs, values and world views, and those of others.

    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can explain reasons people may have or may use to explain events and issues in different ways.

      I can understand that interpretations are influenced by a range of factors.

      I can explain some reasons why people have different opinions about the significance of people, events and experiences in the past and present, and can form my own opinions of their significance.

      I can infer and evaluate interpretations and viewpoints from a range of sources and evidence.

      I can draw on a range of interpretations to come to a reasoned personal perspective.

      I can express, justify and discuss my personal opinions in debates and in writing.

      I can appreciate that my interpretations are influenced by my identity, experiences and beliefs.

      I can understand that interpretations, including my own, can change over time, especially in the light of new evidence or when approached from a different perspective.

      I can see that some interpretations and opinions have greater validity than others.

      I can explain how interpretations can influence people’s actions, traditions and forms of expression.

    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can explain the complex features of places, environments and landscapes at a variety of scales, using map skills where appropriate.

      I can describe the distribution and changing patterns of places, spaces and environments over time, and the connections between them.

      I can explain the causes and effects of change on places, environments, landscapes and people over time, considering interconnections between factors.

      I can explain patterns of continuity and change in the natural world in different periods of history.

      I can explain the significance of the impact of physical processes upon human societies in the past and present.

      I can understand the responsibility that humans have to create a sustainable natural world.

      I can examine a broad range of religious and non-religious world views about the natural world and the responsibility humanity has towards it.

      I can describe a range of religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can explain some religious and non-religious world views about the nature of life and death and beliefs about life after death and the concept of Ultimate Reality.

    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use my understanding of chronology to explain and analyse how different societies have changed or stayed the same over time in Wales and the wider world.

      I can identify significant turning points that influence change in society and explain how these can have positive and negative effects on people’s lives.

      I can categorise and explain causes and consequences of past events, recognising the complex and contested nature of explanation.

      I can explain ways in which my own and others’ identity is expressed,

      I can explain the impact that the actions and decisions of those in positions of authority and power can have on people’s lives.

      I can understand that there are tensions within communities and societies, and I can respond sensitively when discussing them.

      I can explain and evaluate people’s contributions to Welsh society and the wider world.

      I can understand that past human behaviour and relationships influence cultural diversity.

      I can explain ways in which diverse communities can live together cooperatively for the common good.

      I can make meaningful connections and comparisons between societies.

    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can understand the causes and consequences of injustice and inequality.

      I can explain the impacts of decisions made at local, national or global levels on people and the environment.

      I can explain how people’s different beliefs and experiences impact upon moral and ethical decision‑making.

      I can explain the connections between past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities faced by people in Wales and the wider world.

      I can explain the importance of current human rights issues and movements in Wales and the wider world, and the importance of individuals, organisations and societies in protecting or denying people’s rights.

      I have identified, planned and taken action as a responsible citizen in my local community, or in Wales or the wider world, to effect positive change, individually or collaboratively.

      I can assess the impact and evaluate the effectiveness of my actions on myself and future generations, suggesting improvements.

      I can understand that when I take social action it benefits my self-development as well as benefiting other people.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning. Developing an enquiring mind and experiencing enquiries allows learners to investigate and consider all aspects of Humanities.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Enquiries with a focus on exploring different interpretations.
        • Secondary evidence used in enquiries can illustrate varied viewpoints, interpretations and representations.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Enquiries with a focus on human relationships and impact upon the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Enquiries with a focus on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries with a focus on change and continuity.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Through enquiry, learners develop their understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Art, music, theatre, literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Health and Well-being

        • Using Humanities methodology to consider aspects of health and well-being such as mental, physical and emotional health.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of qualitative data as evidence for enquiries.
        • Collection of primary data.
        • Sampling methods and statistical techniques of analysing data.
        • Representation of data in graphical form.
        • Interpreting a range of graphs.
        • Sorting and classifying.
        • Spotting trends and anomalies.

        Science and Technology

        • The nature of enquiry as it relates to Science and Technology.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present
      • opportunities for self-reflection as they consider how their enquiry may add meaning to their life and may contribute to their sense of their place in the world.

      Learners need to know:

      • appropriate methodologies for the collection of data and evidence
      • the similarities and differences between enquiry methods in each subject area.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • undertake enquiries that are focused on interdisciplinary as well as subject-focused questions and issues
      • observe and use prior knowledge to ask and frame appropriate questions
      • gather evidence from a range of sources gained from outdoor learning, and primary and secondary research
      • identify the relevance of the information collected to the specific context of the enquiry
      • use various methods to present evidence from enquiries, including using digital techniques where appropriate
      • interpret, critically analyse and evaluate a wide range of written, visual, physical and oral evidence, including factual, philosophical and interpretative evidence
      • interpret findings in order to draw, present and justify substantiated conclusions
      • reflect on and evaluate the effectiveness of enquiries
      • reflect on and evaluate the application of digital tools in enquiries.
    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Understanding that interpretations and viewpoints can develop from specific enquiries.
        • Interpretations presented by specific sources and evidence.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Interpretations and viewpoints on the relationship between humans and the natural world, e.g. climate change.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Historical interpretations of people and events.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • An individual’s viewpoint of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Expressive arts act as mediums for the expression of interpretations and viewpoints.

        Health and Well-being

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.
        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as a medium of expression for interpretations.
        • Identity and language.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Interpreting data, i.e. economic trends.

        Science and Technology

        • Interpretations of scientific discoveries and their impact on the world.
        • Perceptions of the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in, and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • collaborative discussion on a wide range of varied viewpoints and interpretations, including opportunities for formal and informal debates
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • what makes an interpretation valid
      • how interpretations are shaped and formed
      • how selection of evidence influences interpretations and opinions.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore the complexity of local, national and global issues, and engage with multiple perspectives relating to these issues
      • explore different interpretations of people, societies, periods of time and events; the role of businesses; religious and non-religious world views, beliefs, values, sources and sacred texts; places, landscapes, cultures and environments
      • form, express and discuss personal opinions about a range of issues across the Humanities
      • draw on a range of interpretations and opinions to come to a reasoned personal perspective
      • use different perspectives to explore issues
      • engage with interpretations found within a range of sources and use these to support or contradict their own interpretations and responses
      • explore how people have differing interpretations relating to the significance of events, people, changes and experiences
      • explore layers of meaning within symbolic representations.
    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on the relationship between humans and the natural world.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Interpretations of changes to the natural world.
        • Interpretations of human responsibility towards the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The natural world as a stimulus for Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The contribution of the natural world to our health and well-being.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The natural world as a stimulus for literature and creative writing.
        • Cultural empathy and sensitivity.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of appropriate equipment to measure accurately.
        • Scale.
        • Time and chronological ordering.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of science in explaining the world around us and how it was formed.
        • The impact of scientific and technological development on the natural world.
        • Living things and their place in the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know:

      • about a range of themes and concepts, including agricultural and industrial change, climate change, consumerism, economic and environmental sustainability, employment, nature, natural hazards and disasters, migration, myths, legends and stories, pilgrimage, pollution, population, resource scarcity, sacred places, settlements, trade, war and conflict
      • about the impact of businesses and of people’s actions as producers and consumers on the natural world
      • about the influence of political groups and institutions on the natural world
      • the causes and effects of physical processes that shape places, environments and landscapes
      • the causes and effects of change to places, environments, landscapes and people over time, including economic, political, technological and social factors
      • that a range of physical processes interact to develop distinctive landscapes at a range of scales
      • about sustainability in the context of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment
      • about a variety of factors that have and continue to have a positive and negative impact on the environment in Wales and the wider world.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • give detailed descriptions of place, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, and type and nature of human communities
      • create and utilise a variety of maps, using their map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, and exploiting digital and other methods, including geographical information systems
      • describe and explain patterns and reasons for changes in spatial distribution of settlements and features, such as migration, population or industrialisation
      • explain a range of religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena in the natural world
      • describe some religious and non-religious world views about the concepts of Ultimate Reality, the nature of life and death, and beliefs about life after death
      • describe religious and non-religious world views about change, cause and effect, and the interconnection between humans and the natural world
      • explain how a range of world views inform opinions about the sustainability of the world, including religious and non-religious world views
      • explore a range of beliefs, ethics and philosophies about the natural world and how they influence people’s interactions with the world
      • articulate their experiences and appreciation of interacting with the natural world and the effect this has had upon them
      • use annotated maps and diagrams appropriately
      • explore a range of local environments and experience opportunities to develop their curiosity about and appreciation of them.
    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries focusing on social sameness and difference.
        • Enquiries focusing on change and continuity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Historical interpretations.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of expressive arts in shaping culture and societies in the past and present.
        • Explore the arts from various times, cultures and societies.
        • Explore our own and other cultures.
        • The role of expressive arts as a media for expression of interpretations and representations.

        Health and Well-being

        • Social values and norms in societies.
        • Social influences on individuals.
        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature from a range of cultures and societies.
        • The influence of literature in shaping culture in societies.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Data to illustrate social differences and inequalities.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of digital technology in modern societies.
        • The influence of science and technology on economies of different societies now and in the past.
        • The influence of inventions and discoveries on the evolution of human societies.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and engage with their communities and beyond, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and engage with key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners need to know:

      • about the history and diversity of the communities and societies of which they are part
      • the variety of ways in which societies are and have been organised and governed
      • connections and comparisons between periods of time in order to develop a chronological map of the past
      • how and why societies and people’s lives have changed or stayed the same, and be able to explain and make judgements about the significance of change and continuity
      • about the diverse nature of religions and world views, beliefs, practices and customs in different societies, and their impact
      • how and why people’s lives differ within societies and in different places and at different times, including a focus on the lives, experiences and beliefs of ordinary people in a range of different societies at different times
      • the causes, effects and nature of a range of changes in societies
      • about a range of ways in which diverse communities can live together cooperatively for the common good
      • about ways in which commitment and identity are expressed
      • about people and groups of people who have had an impact on societies
      • about the diverse nature of societies, including about their beliefs, practices and customs; cultural institutions; ethnicity; equality and inequality; justice; religion and world views; rights; migration; population; religious, political, social, cultural, business, community and charity figures of all genders and orientations; social, political and economic ideologies, organisations and structures
      • about the nature and extent of change over time, including about changing political systems and leadership, along with democracy and devolution; industrial and agricultural change; innovation and technological development; invasion, protest and rebellion; peace and conflict; population change and migration; trade.

      Learners should be able to:

      • describe and explain characteristics of a range of different societies, including their similarities and differences, both in the past and present, in Wales, the United Kingdom, Europe and other parts of the world
      • respond sensitively and insightfully to ideas about communities and cultures, including unity and plurality within and across religions, world views and politics.
    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focused on developing understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • An individual’s view of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
        • The impact of actions on the environment.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
        • Impact of actions on society.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Ways of expressing and representing the themes of rights, respect, equality and justice through Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The importance of decision‑making to support ethical and sustainable responses to challenges and opportunities.
        • Recognising appropriate behaviours in different situations.
        • Responding sensitively to the needs of others.
        • Developing relationships to support citizenship.
        • Social influences and citizenship.
        • Understanding rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Discussion of social issues.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • An individual’s economic role, including being financially literate.

        Science and Technology

        • The scientific, technological and digital challenges facing humanity.
        • Potential scientific and technological solutions to the challenges facing humanity.
        • Digital interdependence.
        • The digital economy.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and respond to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale and to understand the impacts of inequality and injustice (from Progression step 3 onwards)
      • opportunities to engage with groups, organisations and businesses when planning and taking social action
      • exploring local, national and international groups, organisations and businesses and the ways they are responsible for and respond to the challenges and opportunities faced by their locality, Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the different contexts in which inequality can exist, such as in gender, sexuality and race contexts
      • the difference between injustice and inequality
      • the causes and consequences of injustice and inequality
      • the importance of diversity and how diversity shouldn’t result in injustice or inequality
      • about human rights, including that children have human rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the importance of respecting the rights of others
      • the challenges to human rights on a local, national and global scale in the past and present
      • a range of ways in which social change has been effected in the past, and how these changes have impacted on people’s lives
      • the interconnections between challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • that causes and consequences of past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities can be influenced by ethical and moral judgements and viewpoints
      • the power and authority of local, national, and global governance, and of non-government organisations, such as in environmental issues and in protecting or denying human rights
      • the use and misuse of power, including conflict, democracy, the imbalance of power between rich and poor countries, the significance of national and international organisations
      • the changing local, national and international economies, including how technology can have economic impact
      • their own and others’ environmental role and responsibility in creating a sustainable future
      • about the beliefs, teachings and practices that influence social action.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • utilise their enterprising attitudes and skills through planning and participating in a range of events
      • plan, participate in and evaluate their social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

  • Descriptions of learning based on progression within what matters statements and reflecting the four purposes of the curriculum.

    • Principles of progression are the basis on which the achievement outcomes have been developed and should guide the progression of learning within the area of learning and experience.

      This area of learning and experience will help learners gain:

      • increased sophistication of conceptual understanding, whereby learners see beyond a list of facts and engage with those ideas that underpin the disciplines that make up Humanities, and how these interrelate in different contexts
      • increased depth of knowledge, characterised by linking new learning to existing knowledge, developing a more sophisticated understanding and resolving the conflicts that can emerge from different points of view
      • an ability to work with an increasing number of more sophisticated sources of information
      • more sophisticated use of relevant skills, including appropriate use of subject-specific terminology
      • increasing independence and self-regulation.
    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can independently formulate and respond to complex open-ended questions.

      I can independently select the appropriate research methods and types of evidence, depending on the disciplinary context of the enquiry.

      I can gather a variety of relevant evidence, including quantitative and qualitative data.

      I can independently select the appropriate method of presenting my findings and conclusions, and I can reference my work appropriately.

      I can communicate the results of my enquiry using a variety of methods appropriate to the subject matter, purpose and audience.

      I can interpret evidence, infer meaning and draw conclusions, synthesising a range of evidence.

      I can evaluate the usefulness and reliability of qualitative and quantitative evidence, considering its content, provenance, purpose, context and limitations.

      I can understand the impact of sources of authority and analyse how they are interpreted and used.

      I can make coherent, substantiated responses and judgements that are balanced and take into consideration a range of viewpoints.

      I can independently evaluate the success of my enquiries, suggest improvements and refine my methodology for future enquires.

      I can make considered reflections for further research or extension of the enquiry.

      I can explain the similarities and differences between enquiries in the subject areas within Humanities.

      I have taken a leading role in developing enquiries focusing on my locality, Wales, and the wider world in one or more of the disciplines in Humanities.

      I have utilised a range of sources, including those from my own research, to add depth to my enquiries.

      I have had the opportunity for self-reflection, considering how my enquiry might add meaning to my own life and might contribute to my sense of place in the world.

      When learners are engaged in discipline-specific enquiries, the following should be added to Progression step 5.

      Geography

      I can predict possible outcomes to geographical research.

      I can collect relevant quantitative and qualitative primary and secondary data accurately.

      I can interpret and present data in a graphical or cartographical form.

      I can draw conclusions from geographical data using statistical skills where appropriate.

      History

      I can understand the subjective and incomplete nature of historical evidence.

      I can analyse and evaluate the reliability, utility and validity of primary and secondary historical evidence in context of the specific enquiry.

      I can fully justify and support my conclusions, while acknowledging the limitations of judgements about the past based on the available evidence.

      Religious education

      I can engage in philosophical enquiry considering the diversity, complexity and plurality of religious and non‑religious world views.

      I can understand that Ultimate questions are complex, and answers are often partial and inconclusive.

      I can appreciate, empathise with and critically evaluate sources of wisdom and authority, and religious and non‑religious world views, in order to form my own reasoned conclusions.

      I can observe and investigate forms of religious expression, and can critically evaluate how aspects of religion and belief impact upon me, other individuals, local society and global society.

      Business studies and social studies

      I can plan and follow appropriate social studies or business studies methodologies, using primary and secondary social research methods when appropriate.

      I can collect, collate and analyse primary data using appropriate sampling techniques.

      I have considered and acted upon my ethical responsibilities as a social studies and business studies researcher.

    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can accept that questions about life, experiences and the world are complex and that responses are often partial and inconclusive, and I can discuss accordingly.

      I can analyse the impacts of different perspectives in response to questions about life, experiences and the world on my own life and on the lives of others.

      I can explain and analyse a range of reasons why people have different opinions about the significance of people, events and experiences in the past and present, and can form, defend and justify my own opinions of their significance.

      I can critically evaluate the validity of interpretations by considering how they are shaped and influenced by place and belief, and how they can change over time.

      I have investigated what influences and shapes my own interpretations, and I can explain how my views are influenced by social, cultural and historical contexts.

      I can appreciate the varied lenses through which one views the world and recognise the limitations of my own perspective.

      I have begun to challenge my own values and perspectives.

      I can evaluate the credibility and validity of a range of perspectives and use this evaluation to support the development of my own informed, justified and balanced judgements about life, events and experiences.

      I can integrate new or revised perspectives into my own thinking.

      I can infer subtle interpretations from sources and evidence.

      I have explored how people’s interpretations and views have led to certain actions.

      I have had opportunities to form, express and discuss personal opinions about a range of issues across the Humanities.

      I can form, justify, and support my own interpretations.

      I have had opportunities to discuss, analyse and evaluate the interpretations offered by others.

      I have explored the complexity of local, national and global issues, and engaged with multiple perspectives relating to these issues.

      I have used different perspectives to explore issues.

      I have had opportunities to engage in formal and informal debates on a range of current and controversial topics.

      When learners are engaged in discipline-specific enquiries, the following should be added to Progression step 5.

      Geography

      I can understand and describe how geographical interpretations are influenced by a range of factors.

      I can explain how interpretations of place, landscapes, environments and cultures may change over time.

      I can understand how people’s interpretations of place, landscapes, environments and cultures influence their actions.

      I can express and justify my viewpoints about a variety of places, landscapes, environments and cultures in Wales and the wider world, and understand that my views may change over time.

      History

      I can explain how and why interpretations of historical events have changed over time and explain why historians form different interpretations of events.

      I can form, express and support my own interpretations of historical events.

      I can understand how my own identity, experiences, opinions, and beliefs can affect my own interpretations and understanding of historical events.

      I can adapt or change my interpretations of historical events in the light of new evidence.

      Religious education

      I can critically evaluate specific aspects of religion and world views, considering the different interpretations of religious teachings and the impact of these upon me, other individuals, local and global society.

      I can analyse, interpret and evaluate layers of meaning in religious expression, e.g. symbolism, pilgrimage, rituals, rites of passage, ceremonies, literature, art, dance and music.

      I have been able to form, express and support my opinion on a range of Ultimate questions.

      I can express and justify my feelings with integrity and maturity, demonstrating clearly how what I have learned has impacted on my own beliefs and values.

      Business studies and social studies

      I can understand how political, economic and social ideologies influence my own and other people’s interpretations of the roles and functions of business in society.

      I can understand that there is a range of interpretations of social issues that inform how society is structured.

      I have engaged with diverse viewpoints and perspectives on social issues and used these insights to strengthen my own decisions and opinions.

    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can give comprehensive descriptions and explanations of places, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, and apply this knowledge to unfamiliar environments.

      I can create maps, select and utilise a variety of appropriate complex map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, including use of sophisticated digital geographical information systems.

      I can account for distinctive patterns of distribution, at different scales, of features within the natural world.

      I can select and evaluate the suitability of digital and other methods used to locate places, environments, landscapes and spatial patterns of distribution.

      I can evaluate the environmental cost of business activity and suggest strategies as to how different businesses can respond to environmental issues.

      I can comprehensively explain a broad range of physical processes that have contributed to the formation of the natural world.

      I can explain and critically evaluate connections between the causes and effects of change on places, environments, landscapes and people.

      I can critically evaluate the sustainability of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment.

      I can evaluate and explain the patterns of continuity and change in the relationship between humans and the environment in the past and present, and the impact each has upon the other in a range of contexts and at a range of scales, and can suggest possible strategies to reduce these impacts.

      I can understand and explain how environments can become threatened.

      I can understand and explain the consequences of living in an unsustainable way and suggest possible sustainable futures.

      I can critically evaluate a broad range of religious and non-religious world views on the nature of the natural world and the responsibility humanity has towards it.

      I can evaluate a range of religious and non-religious practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena within the natural world.

      I can explain and evaluate a range of significant religious and non-religious world views about the concepts of Ultimate Reality, the nature of life and death, and beliefs about life after death.

    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can use my detailed understanding of the nature and extent of change and continuity over an extended period of time to critically analyse how cultures have adapted and changed.

      I can compare and contrast significant turning points, using various criteria that examine the positive and negative on people’s lives.

      I can analyse and explain how various causal factors interrelate over a range of time scales, and how the significance of these factors may be contested.

      I can analyse and explain the significance and consequences of changes in a range of societies in the past and present.

      I can explain the complex nature of my own and others’ identity, how these identities are formed and how they impact on people’s behaviour.

      I can critically analyse a range of complex similarities and differences between diverse societies in the past and present, including through reference to geographical location, culture, religion, politics, world views and the economy.

      I can evaluate the significance of the relationships between a wide range of societies, their connections and interdependencies.

      I can explain the causes and nature of inequalities between and within societies.

    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      Achievement outcomes

      I can analyse the underlying causes of injustice and inequality and how governments and non-government organisations respond to them.

      I can use disciplinary lenses when exploring challenges and opportunities faced by people in Wales and the wider world.

      I can evaluate other people’s viewpoints and responses to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities, understanding the impact that they may have on moral and ethical decision‑making.

      I can synthesise a range of responses to complex challenges and opportunities, to form an independent, coherent and substantiated conclusion.

      I can evaluate the underlying causes of current human rights issues and movements in Wales and the wider world, and the various factors that undermine or support people’s rights.

      I can utilise the skills needed to contribute effectively to the world of work and my anticipated career path for the future.

      I have taken an active role in raising awareness of challenges and opportunities locally, nationally or globally.

      I can identify, plan, take action and evaluate the role I play as a responsible citizen in my local and wider community, Wales and the wider world, individually or collaboratively.

      I can evaluate the impact and effectiveness of my actions and the actions of others, identify specific strengths and weaknesses, and plan strategic improvements.

      I can critically evaluate how my own beliefs and actions contribute to my role as an ethical, informed citizen and the benefit this has upon me and my self-development.

    Supporting information to aid practitioners with the design and development of curricula in settings and schools.

    • Learners’ journey through Humanities will be characterised by enquiry and discovery, as they are encouraged to be curious and to question, to think critically and to reflect upon evidence. Through such enquiry, learners gain a deeper understanding of the concepts underpinning Humanities, and their application in local, national and global contexts. An enquiring mind stimulates new and creative thinking. Engaging with questions empowers learners to understand human experiences and the natural world.

      Learners use appropriate disciplinary approaches, including digital humanities, to gather, analyse, and evaluate a range of evidence and to communicate and present their findings. Learners interpret and synthesise information to build upon what they have already learned and further inform their understanding of the world. By thinking critically about their discoveries, learners draw informed conclusions, but also understand that some conclusions can only be partial or inconclusive and open to different interpretations. Learners carefully reflect in order to improve their methodology and extend or deepen their enquiry. Learners will also understand that, as well as being a process, enquiry is a quest to understand the human condition. Indeed, enquiry enables self-reflection which adds meaning to their own lives and contributes to their sense of place in the world.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning. Developing an enquiring mind and experiencing enquiries allows learners to investigate and consider all aspects of Humanities.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Enquiries with a focus on exploring different interpretations.
        • Secondary evidence used in enquiries can illustrate varied viewpoints, interpretations and representations.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Enquiries with a focus on human relationships and impact upon the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Enquiries with a focus on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries with a focus on change and continuity.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Through enquiry, learners develop their understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Art, music, theatre, literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Health and Well-being

        • Using Humanities methodology to consider aspects of health and well-being such as mental, physical and emotional health.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as evidence for and a focus of enquiries.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of qualitative data as evidence for enquiries.
        • Collection of primary data.
        • Sampling methods and statistical techniques of analysing data.
        • Representation of data in graphical form.
        • Interpreting a range of graphs.
        • Sorting and classifying.
        • Spotting trends and anomalies.

        Science and Technology

        • The nature of enquiry as it relates to Science and Technology.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of questioning, evidence, evaluation, validity, reliability, bias, ethics and judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • a range of stimuli that aim to enthuse and inspire them to imagine and be curious, and to explore, discover and question
      • a range of opportunities to enquire and to learn outdoors, as well as indoors, including both physical and digital learning
      • using a range of different visual, oral, written and physical sources
      • engagement in enquiries, individually and collaboratively
      • engagement with philosophical questioning
      • enquiries focusing on learners’ locality, Wales and the wider world in the past and present
      • opportunities for self-reflection as they consider how their enquiry may add meaning to their life and may contribute to their sense of their place in the world.

      Learners need to know:

      • appropriate methodologies for the collection of data and evidence
      • the similarities and differences between enquiry methods in each subject area.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • undertake enquiries that are focused on interdisciplinary as well as subject-focused questions and issues
      • observe and use prior knowledge to ask and frame appropriate questions
      • gather evidence from a range of sources gained from outdoor learning, and primary and secondary research
      • identify the relevance of the information collected to the specific context of the enquiry
      • use various methods to present evidence from enquiries, including using digital techniques where appropriate
      • interpret, critically analyse and evaluate a wide range of written, visual, physical and oral evidence, including factual, philosophical and interpretative evidence
      • interpret findings in order to draw, present and justify substantiated conclusions
      • reflect on and evaluate the effectiveness of enquiries
      • reflect on and evaluate the application of digital tools in enquiries.

      In addition to the above at Progression step 5, in their discipline-specific enquiries learners should have opportunities to undertake the following.

      Geography
      • Enquiries linked to environmental and geographic events and themes, which includes fieldwork and learning outside the classroom, use of geographical information systems, gathering quantitative and qualitative data, and statistical analysis of numerical data.
      History
      • Historical enquiries that would include developing an understanding of the use and value of written, visual, and physical evidence (including first-hand or primary evidence, as well as secondary sources) to explain how and why historical interpretations are formed.
      Religious education
      • Enquiries exploring complex philosophical questions about the meaning and purpose of life. This includes engaging with Ultimate questions raised by the world around them, their own life experiences and aspects of religion, as well as using sources of wisdom and philosophy.
      Business studies and social studies
      • Enquiries linked to business and economic themes, using forms of media, data, case studies and market research.
      • Enquires exploring contemporary and controversial social issues, people’s views and perspectives on social issues, and the ways that people participate in society and social action.
    • Learners in Wales are forever trying to make sense of the world around them, a world they encounter though a variety of perspectives. Humanities encourages them to critically review the ways the events and experiences of that world are represented and interpreted, using this information to construct their own informed perspectives.

      Learners understand how various factors can influence their own and others’ perceptions and interpretations, while also developing an appreciation of how narratives and representations are constructed, and exploring how and why interpretations may differ. As they develop a critical understanding of a range of interpretations and representations, they will be better placed to evaluate their validity, and to foster a more holistic understanding of events, experiences and the natural world. This will enable learners in Wales to develop self-awareness as they create their own informed viewpoints.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Understanding that interpretations and viewpoints can develop from specific enquiries.
        • Interpretations presented by specific sources and evidence.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Interpretations and viewpoints on the relationship between humans and the natural world, e.g. climate change.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Historical interpretations of people and events.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • An individual’s viewpoint of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Expressive arts act as mediums for the expression of interpretations and viewpoints.

        Health and Well-being

        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.
        • How citizenship is linked to and impacted by social influences.
        • How the values and norms of individuals form a collective identity and collective values.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature as a medium of expression for interpretations.
        • Identity and language.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Interpreting data, i.e. economic trends.

        Science and Technology

        • Interpretations of scientific discoveries and their impact on the world.
        • Perceptions of the natural world.

      Experience, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including seeking meaning, Ultimate and philosophical questions, representations, perspectives, historical interpretations, significance, validity and making judgements.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to engage with a range of issues in their local community to develop their own perspective on their locality
      • stimuli that inspire and enthuse them to be curious about, engage in and explore complex and controversial issues in order to make sense of the world
      • a range of opportunities to form and express opinions
      • a range of opportunities to hear and discuss alternative opinions
      • collaborative discussion on a wide range of varied viewpoints and interpretations, including opportunities for formal and informal debates
      • a range of opportunities to access interpretations of issues, e.g. through engaging with guest speakers, and visiting places of interest
      • accessing interpretations and perspectives through a variety of physical and digital media
      • a range of opportunities to engage with Ultimate questions
      • a range of symbolic stories, rituals, artefacts, art, dance, drama, music and food.

      Learners need to know:

      • the range of factors that contribute to the validity of interpretations
      • how interpretations are shaped and formed
      • how selection and judgements about the validity of evidence influences interpretations and opinions.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • explore the complexity of local, national and global issues and engage with multiple perspectives relating to these issues
      • explore a wide range of different interpretations of people, societies, periods of time, and events; role of businesses; religious and non-religious world views, beliefs, values, sources, sacred texts; places, landscapes, cultures and environments
      • investigate and understand what influences and shapes their own interpretations and opinions and be able to draw on a range of interpretations and opinions to come to a reasoned personal perspective
      • explore how and why interpretations are shaped and formed and how they can change over time
      • explore how and why people have differing interpretations relating to the significance of events, people, changes and experiences
      • evaluate the validity and credibility of interpretations through discussion of how interpretations are shaped and how they can change over time
      • explore how people’s interpretations and viewpoints have impacted upon their actions.
      • form, express and discuss personal opinions about a range of issues across the Humanities
      • discuss, analyse and evaluate the interpretations offered by others
      • use different perspectives to explore issues
      • explore multiple perspectives and alternative visions for the future
      • engage with interpretations found within a wide range of sources, and use these to support and defend their own interpretations and responses.

      When planning discipline-specific learning, the following should be added to the above at Progression step 5.

      Geography

      Learners need to know:

      • different interpretations of geographical themes
      • how interpretations may vary depending upon an individual’s culture, socioeconomic status, age, gender, education, travel experiences, etc.
      • how representations of place, cultures and environments change through time, e.g. in cultural geography, the representation of place, environments and cultures through music, literature, films, etc.
      • how people’s perceptions influence how they interact with places, environments and cultures
      • the significance of different viewpoints and perceptions in understanding change in physical and human environments at all scales from Wales to the wider world.
      History

      Learners need to know:

      • how people and past events in Wales and the wider world have been interpreted in different ways
      • how and why historians have come to their interpretations
      • how and why historians can form different interpretations of the same event or person
      • how different viewpoints and interpretations have impacted upon events in history.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • apply appropriate methods of evaluating the validity of historical interpretations.
      Religious education

      Learners need to know:

      • perceptions, interpretations and representations of religious and non-religious world views, beliefs and practices, symbolism, pilgrimage, rituals, rites of passage, ceremonies, literature, art, rituals, dance and music
      • about interpreting and evaluating texts, sources of wisdom and authority and other evidence.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • articulate clearly and coherently personal beliefs, ideas, values and experiences while respecting the right of others to differ.
      Business studies and social studies

      Learners need to know:

      • political, economic, business ideologies and perspectives
      • the contributions made by Welsh, the United Kingdom, European and global business individuals in the past and present
      • how the economic decisions of business and industries has impacted on experiences and perspectives
      • interpretations of social issues and social inequality
      • viewpoints and interpretations of society through the ‘lenses’ of identity, multiculturalism, gender and sexuality.
    • Learners will have opportunities to nurture curiosity about the natural world and understand how and why it changes. This in turn helps learners to identify what makes a place distinct and develop an awareness of the interconnections between humans and their environment. Consequently, learners are in a better position to make connections between the past and present, and to imagine possible futures.

      Through understanding a variety of physical processes, and their causes and effects, learners will appreciate how places, environments and landscapes change within Wales and the wider world. They will also develop their understanding of how human actions in the past and today affect the natural world and how the natural world impacts on humans. This will heighten learners’ awareness of how the future sustainability of our world is influenced by the impact of human actions. It will also encourage learners in Wales to understand, as producers and consumers, their impact on the natural world.

      Learners will explore a range of beliefs and philosophies about the natural world, and how they influence people’s interactions with the world. They will learn also how experiencing the wonder of the natural world can contribute to their spiritual development and well-being, and cultivate a sense of place and sense of belonging, as embodied in the Welsh word cynefin.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on the relationship between humans and the natural world.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Interpretations of changes to the natural world.
        • Interpretations of human responsibility towards the natural world.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The natural world as a stimulus for Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The contribution of the natural world to our health and well-being.
        • Environmental factors that affect health and well-being.
        • Food production and sustainability.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • The natural world as a stimulus for literature and creative writing.
        • Cultural empathy and sensitivity.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Use of appropriate equipment to measure accurately.
        • Scale.
        • Time and chronological ordering.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of science in explaining the world around us and how it was formed.
        • The impact of scientific and technological development on the natural world.
        • Living things and their place in the natural world.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore the concepts of place, space, environment, physical processes, significance, cause and effect, and change and continuity.

      Learners need to experience:

      • outdoor learning, which includes exploration and first-hand experiences of places, environments and landscapes, to help them understand how the natural world works (this should include the learner’s own locality)
      • opportunities to develop a curiosity about and an appreciation of the natural world
      • opportunities to experience a sense of awe and wonder, and to reflect upon the natural world and their connection to it.

      Learners need to know:

      • about a range of themes and concepts, including agricultural and industrial change, climate change, consumerism, economic and environmental sustainability, employment, nature, natural hazards and disasters, migration, myths, legends and stories, pilgrimage, pollution, population, resource scarcity, sacred places, settlements, trade, war and conflict
      • about the impact of businesses and of people’s actions as producers and consumers on the natural world
      • about the influence of political groups and institutions on the natural world
      • the concept of sustainability in the context of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment, such as the way governments, businesses and other organisations respond to environmental issues
      • about a range of religious and non-religious beliefs, teachings and practices associated with significant spaces, places and phenomena in the natural world
      • about religious and non-religious world views about change, cause and effect regarding the natural world, which may include ideas about interconnectedness and dependent origination
      • about the positive and negative impacts of humans on the natural world in the past and present, in Wales and the wider world
      • about the impact of the natural world on humans, in the past and present, in Wales and the wider world.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • give comprehensive descriptions and explanations of place, environments and landscapes, including distinctive features and landforms, and type and nature of human communities
      • create, utilise and evaluate the appropriateness of a variety of complex maps and use their map skills to accurately locate places, environments and landscapes, through methods which include sophisticated digital geographical information systems
      • evaluate the suitability of digital and other methods used to locate spatial patterns of distribution
      • explain the causes of distinctive patterns of distribution, at different scales, of features in the natural world
      • describe the distribution and changing patterns of places, spaces and environments over time and the connections between them
      • describe and explain the development of a range of physical features, environments and landscapes in Wales and the wider world
      • explain that a range of physical processes interact to shape distinctive landforms at a range of different scales
      • develop a critical understanding of the impact of human actions on a range of places, environments and landscapes
      • critically evaluate a range of strategies to reduce the risk and impact of physical processes on people and their environment
      • explain how human actions may lead to the creation of threatened environments if we do not live in a sustainable way
      • critically evaluate a variety of factors that have and continue to have an impact on the environment in Wales and the wider world, such as climate change and the consequences of living in an unsustainable way
      • evaluate the causes and effects of change to places, environments, landscapes and people over time, including economic, business, political, technological and social factors, having an understanding of how these link to sustainability
      • evaluate a range of religious and non-religious world views about the concepts of Ultimate Reality, the nature of life and death, and beliefs about life after death
      • evaluate a range of religious and non-religious beliefs, ethics and philosophies about change, cause and effect, and the interconnection between human experience, behaviour and the natural world, taking into account how they influence people’s interactions with it
      • explain how a range of world views inform opinions about the sustainability of the world, including religious and non-religious world views
      • explain and assess the significance of historical changes and events on the natural world
      • explore a range of environments and experience opportunities to develop their curiosity about and appreciation of them
      • articulate their experiences of interacting with the natural world and the effect this has had upon them.
    • An appreciation of identity, heritage and cynefin can influence learners emotionally and spiritually, and help build a sense of self and of belonging. Through an understanding of themselves, learners develop their own identity and an awareness of how they, as individuals, can shape the communities in which they live. Consequently, learners will come to realise that the choices we all make, individually and collectively, can have major impacts.

      Learners will develop an understanding of the complex, pluralistic and diverse nature of societies in Wales and the wider world. Over time, these societies have evolved, experiencing continuity and change that has affected, and continues to affect, their own and other people’s lives. This evolution is driven by the interplay between a range of factors, including human actions and beliefs, and physical forces. Humanities builds an understanding of the causes, consequences and significance of the changes and forces that have shaped societies.

      Humanities encourages a critical understanding of how societies in Wales and the wider world are organised, structured and led. Societies are characterised by a range of cultural, economic, legal and political norms and values. They are also dynamic, both driving and reacting to changes on a local, national and global scale. Learners will explore the connections between such societies in the past and present. They will also be encouraged to explore – and develop a tolerant and empathetic understanding of – the varied beliefs, values, traditions and ethics that underpin and shape human society.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focusing on how societies are diverse and plural.
        • Enquiries focusing on social sameness and difference.
        • Enquiries focusing on change and continuity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • Historical interpretations.
        • Interpretations linked to political ideologies.
        • Interpretations linked to religions and world views.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • The relative impact of different societies at different times on the natural world.
        • How the natural world has impacted upon the evolution of human societies and contributed towards change.

        Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • The importance of expressive arts in shaping culture and societies in the past and present.
        • Explore the arts from various times, cultures and societies.
        • Explore our own and other cultures.
        • The role of expressive arts as a media for expression of interpretations and representations.

        Health and Well-being

        • Social values and norms in societies.
        • Social influences on individuals.
        • How individuals perceive and interpret events and experiences in different ways.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Literature from a range of cultures and societies.
        • The influence of literature in shaping culture in societies.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • Data to illustrate social differences and inequalities.

        Science and Technology

        • The role of digital technology in modern societies.
        • The influence of science and technology on economies of different societies now and in the past.
        • The influence of inventions and discoveries on the evolution of human societies.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should have opportunities to explore concepts including chronology, change and continuity, diversity, cause and effect, interconnectedness, community, identity and belonging, authority and governance.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to explore and engage with their communities and beyond, through stories, celebrations, objects, events and traditions, and to communicate their feelings about them
      • opportunities to explore and engage with key celebrations, traditions and ways of life in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to use digital technology to participate in virtual visits and to communicate with a range of people in a global community
      • outdoor learning and opportunities to visit museums; historical sites; places of political, religious or spiritual significance; geographical features or sites; and businesses or retailers.

      Learners need to know:

      • about the history and diversity of the communities of which they are part
      • about ways in which commitment and identity are expressed within a wide range of societies and cultures
      • the similarities and differences between societies in the past and present in Wales, the United Kingdom, Europe and in other parts of the world
      • how and why people’s lives differ in different places and at different times, ensuring a focus on the lives, experiences and beliefs of ordinary people in a range of different societies at different times, including those who may traditionally have been under‑represented in the study of the Humanities
      • about the diverse nature of societies, including about their beliefs, practices and customs; cultural institutions; ethnicity; equality and inequality; justice; religion and world views; rights; migration; population; religious, political, social, cultural, business, community and charity figures of all genders and orientations; social, political and economic ideologies, organisations and structures
      • about the nature and extent of change over time, including about changing political systems and leadership, along with democracy and devolution; industrial and agricultural change; innovation and technological development; invasion, protest and rebellion; peace and conflict; population change and migration; trade.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • use an increasingly detailed chronological map or framework to make meaningful connections and comparisons between characteristics of different periods of time, which will allow learners to recognise the dynamics of continuity and change over periods of varying lengths, and relate patterns and trends to larger historical processes
      • analyse and evaluate causes and consequences of decisions and events, and of change and continuity, including economic, political, technological, religious and non-religious world views, cultural and social factors
      • critically analyse a range of ways in which diverse communities can live together co‑operatively for the common good
      • respond sensitively and insightfully to religious and non-religious world views about society, communities and cultures, and understand how these can be interpreted in different times, cultures and places.
    • Learners will develop an understanding of their roles as citizens and the importance of creating a just and sustainable future for themselves and their communities in an interconnected world. It encourages learners to be active, informed, and responsible citizens, who are able to identify with and contribute to their local, national and global communities, now and in their future lives.

      Humanities will invite learners to identify and engage with past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, their local community, Wales and the wider world. They will also come to understand the nature of economic, environmental and social sustainability, justice, interconnectedness and authority, and realise the significance of living in and contributing to a fairer and more inclusive society. Learners will develop not only an awareness of their own rights, but also of the rights, needs, concerns and feelings of others in creating a sustainable and interconnected world.

      Questioning and evaluating existing responses to challenges and opportunities will help learners develop as self-aware, informed, ethical global citizens who critically reflect on their own beliefs and values. They will be able to consider the impact of their actions when making choices and exercising their democratic rights and responsibilities. Learners will also be able to justify their decisions when acting socially, politically, economically and entrepreneurially. This will enable learners to take committed social action as caring, participative citizens of their local and global communities, showing a dedication to justice, diversity and the protection of the environment. What is more, by responding to challenges, and taking opportunities for social and sustainable action, they can create meaning and purpose in their own lives.

      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves.

        • Enquiries focused on developing understanding of challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.

        • An individual’s view of their own role and responsibility as a citizen.
        • Differing interpretations of the key challenges and opportunities facing humanity.

        Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.

        • Environmental challenges facing humanity, including climate change.
        • An individual’s role and responsibility in environmental protection.
        • The impact of actions on the environment.

        Human societies are complex and diverse, and shaped by human actions and beliefs.

        • Justice and fairness in societies.
        • Economic development of societies.
        • Political structures in societies.
        • The nature of citizenship.
        • Social roles and responsibilities.
        • Impact of actions on society.
      • This section suggests where learning can be enriched through drawing links between other what matters statements across all the areas of learning and experience. It also suggests where different elements of learning could be considered together in order to support more holistic learning.

        Expressive Arts

        • Ways of expressing and representing the themes of rights, respect, equality and justice through Expressive Arts.

        Health and Well-being

        • The importance of decision‑making to support ethical and sustainable responses to challenges and opportunities.
        • Recognising appropriate behaviours in different situations.
        • Responding sensitively to the needs of others.
        • Developing relationships to support citizenship.
        • Social influences and citizenship.
        • Understanding rights, respect and equity.

        Languages, Literacy and Communication

        • Discussion of social issues.

        Mathematics and Numeracy

        • An individual’s economic role, including being financially literate.

        Science and Technology

        • The scientific, technological and digital challenges facing humanity.
        • Potential scientific and technological solutions to the challenges facing humanity.
        • Digital interdependence.
        • The digital economy.

      Experiences, knowledge and skills

      In this what matters statement, learners should explore concepts including economic, environmental and social sustainability; citizenship; power and authority; interconnectedness; justice and equality; rights; and social action and responsibility.

      Learners need to experience:

      • opportunities to discuss and respond to past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities in Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to plan and participate in social action in response to challenges and opportunities locally, nationally and globally
      • opportunities to demonstrate care, responsibility, concern and respect when considering the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, including the sustainability of the planet
      • opportunities to develop a sense of empathy with people on a local, national or global scale, and to understand the impacts of inequality and injustice
      • opportunities to engage with groups, organisations and businesses when planning and taking social action
      • exploring local, national and international groups, organisations and businesses and the ways they are responsible for and respond to the challenges and opportunities faced by their locality, Wales and the wider world
      • opportunities to be enterprising and develop entrepreneurial skills.

      Learners need to know:

      • the underlying causes of poverty and inequality and how they relate to policies, power and systems
      • the differing views on poverty, inequality and injustice
      • the consequences of national and international initiatives to tackle poverty and inequality
      • the underlying causes of past and contemporary human and children’s rights violations, and the political, legal, socio-cultural, religious and economic factors that support or undermine human rights in Wales and the wider world
      • about human rights, including that children have human rights and that these are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
      • the challenges to human rights on a local, national and global scale in the past and present
      • the causes and nature of the challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • the connections between complex past, contemporary and anticipated challenges and opportunities facing themselves, Wales and the wider world
      • the range of ways in which social change has been effected in the past, and how these have led to significant impacts upon societies and communities
      • the importance of the role of individuals, including themselves, and the role of groups, including governments, businesses and non-government organisations, in the creation of a sustainable future
      • how individuals, groups and organisations can collaborate when responding to challenges and opportunities
      • how the expansion of power and influence of countries or organisations may impact on the cultures, attitudes and experiences of those involved
      • how they can contribute to the world of work and the economy
      • how morals, ethics, religion and world views affect people’s responses to challenges and opportunities and their engagement in social action.

      Learners need to know how to and be able to:

      • utilise their enterprising attitudes and skills through planning and participating in a wide range of events, and evaluate the effectiveness of their own role
      • utilise their social and political literacy to build a conscious understanding of their own role and their responsibilities towards others and towards the environment
      • respond sensitively to diverse perspectives and cultural norms.

    All our children and young people will be:

    ambitious, capable learners who:

    • set themselves high standards and seek and enjoy challenge
    • are building up a body of knowledge and have the skills to connect and apply that knowledge in different contexts
    • are questioning and enjoy solving problems
    • can communicate effectively in different forms and settings, using both Welsh and English
    • can explain the ideas and concepts they are learning about
    • can use number effectively in different contexts – understand how to interpret data and apply mathematical concepts
    • use digital technologies creatively to communicate, find and analyse information
    • undertake research and evaluate critically what they find

    and are ready to learn throughout their lives

    enterprising, creative contributors who:

    • connect and apply their knowledge and skills to create ideas and products
    • think creatively to reframe and solve problems
    • identify and grasp opportunities
    • take measured risks
    • lead and play different roles in teams effectively and responsibly
    • express ideas and emotions through different media
    • give of their energy and skills so that other people will benefit

    and are ready to play a full part in life and work

    ethical, informed citizens who:

    • find, evaluate and use evidence in forming views
    • engage with contemporary issues based upon their knowledge and values
    • understand and exercise their human and democratic responsibilities and rights
    • understand and consider the impact of their actions when making choices and acting
    • are knowledgeable about their culture, community, society and the world, now and in the past
    • respect the needs and rights of others, as a member of a diverse society
    • show their commitment to the sustainability of the planet

    and are ready to be citizens of Wales and the world

    healthy, confident individuals who:

    • have secure values and are establishing their spiritual and ethical beliefs
    • are building their mental and emotional well-being by developing confidence, resilience and empathy
    • apply knowledge about the impact of diet and exercise on physical and mental health in their daily lives
    • know how to find the information and support to keep safe and well
    • take part in physical activity
    • take measured decisions about lifestyle and manage risk
    • have the confidence to participate in performance
    • form positive relationships based upon trust and mutual respect
    • face and overcome challenge
    • have the skills and knowledge to manage everyday life as independently as they can

    and are ready to lead fulfilling lives as valued members of society.

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  • First published 30 April 2019
  • Last updated 30 April 2019